How to format your references using the Sustainable Healthcare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainable Healthcare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kampinga HH. Molecular biology: It takes two to untangle. Nature. 2015;524:169–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schwartz D, Collins F. Medicine. Environmental biology and human disease. Science. 2007;316:695–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Berciu M, Rappoport TG, Jankó B. Manipulating spin and charge in magnetic semiconductors using superconducting vortices. Nature. 2005;435:71–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen D, Steele AD, Lindquist S, Guarente L. Increase in activity during calorie restriction requires Sirt1. Science. 2005;310:1641.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Geyer T. Model Predictive Control of High Power Convertersand Industrial Drives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Amato F. Telemedicina: Approccio multidisciplinare alla gestione dei dati sanitari. Milano: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Newman L. Questions About Gender: Children with Atypical Gender Development. In: Hutson JM, Warne GL, Grover SR, editors. Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 31–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainable Healthcare.

Blog post
1. Taub B. New Technology Uses Wi-Fi Signals To See Through Walls. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Significant Federal Investment Is Not Adequately Protected. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cagle West M. Effective software engineering leadership for development programs. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Grynbaum MM. Familiar Cycle of Partisan Combat Churns Again, and Trump Is Again at the Center. New York Times. 2017;:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainable Healthcare
ISSN (print)2045-998X

Other styles