How to format your references using the The Hastings Center Report citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Hastings Center Report (HCR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadis, S. “Top Physicist Crosses to Boston in Search of like Minds.” Nature 404, no. 6780 (2000): 798.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsuchiya, T., and T. Eulgem. “Mutations in EDM2 Selectively Affect Silencing States of Transposons and Induce Plant Developmental Plasticity.” Scientific Reports 3 (2013): 1701.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petsch, S. T., T. I. Eglington, and K. J. Edwards. “14C-Dead Living Biomass: Evidence for Microbial Assimilation of Ancient Organic Carbon during Shale Weathering.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292, no. 5519 (2001): 1127–31.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yun, H., R. Shi, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. Zhou, and K. Mu. “Over Expression of HRad9 Protein Correlates with Reduced Chemosensitivity in Breast Cancer with Administration of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.” Scientific Reports 4 (2014): 7548.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Doerfler, W. Foreign DNA in Mammalian Systems. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2007.
An edited book
Chakravarthi, V. S., Y. J. M. Shirur, and R. Prasad, eds. Proceedings of International Conference on VLSI, Communication, Advanced Devices, Signals & Systems and Networking (VCASAN-2013). Vol. 258. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. New Delhi: Springer India, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Olsen, R. A., and L. B. F. Juurlink. “Hydrogen Dissociation on Stepped Pt Surfaces.” In Dynamics of Gas-Surface Interactions: Atomic-Level Understanding of Scattering Processes at Surfaces, ed. R. Díez Muiño and H. F. Busnengo, 101–29. Springer Series in Surface Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Hastings Center Report.

Blog post
Andrews, R. “Morocco Will Have 24/7 Solar Power By 2017.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Initial Expenditure Plan.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 15, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer, M. D. “Organizational Improvisation within an Episodic Planning Model: A Systems Perspective.” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rao, T. “Comfort Food.” New York Times, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Hastings Center Report
AbbreviationHastings Cent. Rep.
ISSN (print)0093-0334
ISSN (online)1552-146X

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