How to format your references using the The Hastings Center Report citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Hastings Center Report (HCR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sifers, R. N. “Cell Biology. Protein Degradation Unlocked.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, no. 5611 (2003): 1330–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dekel, E., and U. Alon. “Optimality and Evolutionary Tuning of the Expression Level of a Protein.” Nature 436, no. 7050 (2005): 588–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carlson, M. E., M. Hsu, and I. M. Conboy. “Imbalance between PSmad3 and Notch Induces CDK Inhibitors in Old Muscle Stem Cells.” Nature 454, no. 7203 (2008): 528–32.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Walker, M. L., S. A. Burgess, J. R. Sellers, F. Wang, J. A. Hammer 3rd, J. Trinick, and P. J. Knight. “Two-Headed Binding of a Processive Myosin to F-Actin.” Nature 405, no. 6788 (2000): 804–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lombard, M. SolidWorks® 2011 Parts Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Awad, A. G., and L. N. P. Voruganti, eds. Beyond Assessment of Quality of Life in Schizophrenia. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lavatelli, F., G. Palladini, and G. Merlini. “Pathogenesis of Systemic Amyloidoses.” In Amyloidosis: Diagnosis and Treatment, ed. M. A. Gertz and S. V. Rajkumar, 49–64. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Hastings Center Report.

Blog post
Andrew, E. “Drug-Resistant Malaria Detected In India.” IFLScience. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/drug-resistant-malaria-threatens-india-could-spread-africa/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “[Perspectives on Evaluating Federally Sponsored Research and Development in the United States].” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 17, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olsen, S. L. “A Year of Sin An Experiential Exhibition of Sin.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. “Illinois Is Accused Of Fraud By S.E.C.” New York Times, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference R. N. Sifers, “Cell Biology. Protein Degradation Unlocked,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, no. 5611 (2003): 1330–31..
This sentence cites two references R. N. Sifers, “Cell Biology. Protein Degradation Unlocked,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, no. 5611 (2003): 1330–31; E. Dekel and U. Alon, “Optimality and Evolutionary Tuning of the Expression Level of a Protein,” Nature 436, no. 7050 (2005): 588–92..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: E. Dekel and U. Alon, “Optimality and Evolutionary Tuning of the Expression Level of a Protein,” Nature 436, no. 7050 (2005): 588–92.
  • Three authors: M. E. Carlson, M. Hsu, and I. M. Conboy, “Imbalance between PSmad3 and Notch Induces CDK Inhibitors in Old Muscle Stem Cells,” Nature 454, no. 7203 (2008): 528–32.
  • 4 or more authors: M. L. Walker et al., “Two-Headed Binding of a Processive Myosin to F-Actin,” Nature 405, no. 6788 (2000): 804–7.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Hastings Center Report
AbbreviationHastings Cent. Rep.
ISSN (print)0093-0334
ISSN (online)1552-146X
Scope

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