How to format your references using the The Hastings Center Report citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Hastings Center Report (HCR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donald, A. “Throw off the Cloak of Invisibility.” Nature 490, no. 7421 (2012): 447.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kourra, C. M. B. K., and N. Cramer. “Catalysis: Gold Unleashes the Power of Three.” Nature 517, no. 7535 (2015): 440–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, Q., M. S. Clark, and R. D. Palmiter. “Deciphering a Neuronal Circuit That Mediates Appetite.” Nature 483, no. 7391 (2012): 594–97.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Egan, D. F., D. B. Shackelford, M. M. Mihaylova, S. Gelino, R. A. Kohnz, W. Mair, D. S. Vasquez, et al. “Phosphorylation of ULK1 (HATG1) by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Connects Energy Sensing to Mitophagy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331, no. 6016 (2011): 456–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthys, W., and J. E. Lochman. Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder in Childhood. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
Hens, T. Financial Economics: A Concise Introduction to Classical and Behavioral Finance. Edited by M. O. Rieger. 2nd ed. 2016. Springer Texts in Business and Economics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Rivlin, R. S. “An Introduction to Non-Linear Continuum Mechanics.” In Non-Linear Continuum Theories in Mechanics and Physics and Their Applications, ed. R. S. Rilvil, 151–309. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Hastings Center Report.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. “Sorry Everyone, That Alien Signal Was Probably Just A ‘Terrestrial Disturbance.’” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Information Technology: Best Practices Can Improve Performance and Produce Results.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 26, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reynolds, P. E. “Learning the Ropes: A Grounded Theory Study of Children Crossing Cultures.” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stack, L., and N. Schweber. “2 Shot by Undercover New York City Officer in Westchester.” New York Times, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Hastings Center Report
AbbreviationHastings Cent. Rep.
ISSN (print)0093-0334
ISSN (online)1552-146X

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