How to format your references using the The Hastings Center Report citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Hastings Center Report (HCR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. “National Academies Slam Bush Proposal for Data Security.” Nature 419, no. 6909 (2002): 769.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aitken, R. J., and J. A. Marshall Graves. “The Future of Sex.” Nature 415, no. 6875 (2002): 963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, A. C. Y., F. Petruccione, and J. Koch. “Perturbative Approach to Markovian Open Quantum Systems.” Scientific Reports 4 (2014): 4887.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Qin, N., X. Tan, Y. Jiao, L. Liu, W. Zhao, S. Yang, and A. Jia. “RNA-Seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Inhibition by Ursolic Acid and Resveratrol.” Scientific Reports 4 (2014): 5467.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zigangirov, K. S. Theory of Code Division Multiple Access Communication. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004.
An edited book
Denier, J. P., and M. D. Finn, eds. Mechanics Down Under: Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Held in Adelaide, Australia, 24 - 29 August, 2008. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Böttcher, B., R. Schilling, and J. Wang. “Transformations of Feller Processes.” In Lévy Matters III: Lévy-Type Processes: Construction, Approximation and Sample Path Properties, ed. R. Schilling and J. Wang, 99–110. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Hastings Center Report.

Blog post
Hale, T. “China’s Bizarre Traffic-Straddling Bus Has Actually Been Built.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Intellectual Property: Federal Enforcement Has Generally Increased, but Assessing Performance Could Strengthen Law Enforcement Efforts.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, March 11, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cosma, A. C. “Real-Time Individual Thermal Preferences Prediction Using Visual Sensors.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. “Olympic Leaders Mend U.S. Ties With the I.O.C.” New York Times, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference E. Check, “National Academies Slam Bush Proposal for Data Security,” Nature 419, no. 6909 (2002): 769..
This sentence cites two references E. Check, “National Academies Slam Bush Proposal for Data Security,” Nature 419, no. 6909 (2002): 769; R. J. Aitken and J. A. Marshall Graves, “The Future of Sex,” Nature 415, no. 6875 (2002): 963..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three authors:
  • 4 or more authors: N. Qin et al., “RNA-Seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Inhibition by Ursolic Acid and Resveratrol,” Scientific Reports 4 (2014): 5467.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Hastings Center Report
AbbreviationHastings Cent. Rep.
ISSN (print)0093-0334
ISSN (online)1552-146X

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