How to format your references using the The Hastings Center Report citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Hastings Center Report (HCR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. “Baby Blues.” Nature 433, no. 7027 (2005): 780–81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou, Z., and F. Zhang. “A Precocial Avian Embryo from the Lower Cretaceous of China.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306, no. 5696 (2004): 653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, C., T. Zhang, and D. I. Goldman. “A Terradynamics of Legged Locomotion on Granular Media.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339, no. 6126 (2013): 1408–12.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gedney, N., P. M. Cox, R. A. Betts, O. Boucher, C. Huntingford, and P. A. Stott. “Detection of a Direct Carbon Dioxide Effect in Continental River Runoff Records.” Nature 439, no. 7078 (2006): 835–38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hitchner, J. R. Financial Valuation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
Terris, D. J., and M. C. Singer, eds. Minimally Invasive and Robotic Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery. New York, NY: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Feng, Z., Q. Zhang, and P. Zhang. “Intelligent Resource Management.” In Cognitive Wireless Networks, ed. Q. Zhang and P. Zhang, 85–106. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Hastings Center Report.

Blog post
Hale, T. “Watch This Kid Perfectly Sum Up All The Evidence That Vaccinations Cause Autism.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Motor Carrier Academy.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, November 2, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magallanes, J. “Experiences with Formal and Informal Support: A Case Study of a Female-to-Male Transgender Individual.” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., M. Mazzetti, and E. Schmitt. “Saudi King’s Son Plotted Effort to Oust His Rival.” New York Times, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Hastings Center Report
AbbreviationHastings Cent. Rep.
ISSN (print)0093-0334
ISSN (online)1552-146X

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