How to format your references using the The Hastings Center Report citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Hastings Center Report (HCR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thompson, S. M. “Neuroscience. Matching at the Synapse.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308, no. 5723 (2005): 800–801.
A journal article with 2 authors
Akiyama, B. M., and M. D. Stone. “Structural Biology: A Solution to the Telomerase Puzzle.” Nature 496, no. 7444 (2013): 177–78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frommer, W. B., W. X. Schulze, and S. Lalonde. “Plant Science. Hexokinase, Jack-of-All-Trades.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300, no. 5617 (2003): 261–63.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Najman, Y., M. Pringle, L. Godin, and G. Oliver. “Dating of the Oldest Continental Sediments from the Himalayan Foreland Basin.” Nature 410, no. 6825 (2001): 194–97.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Iyengar, S. S., N. Parameshwaran, V. V. Phoha, N. Balakrishnan, and C. D. Okoye. Fundamentals of Sensor Network Programming. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Dillenburg, S. R. Geology and Geomorphology of Holocene Coastal Barriers of Brazil. Edited by P. A. Hesp. Vol. 107. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Punter, R. A., C. A. W. Glas, and M. R. M. Meelissen. “Modeling Parental Involvement.” In Psychometric Framework for Modeling Parental Involvement and Reading Literacy, ed. C. A. W. Glas and M. R. M. Meelissen, 33–76. IEA Research for Education. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Hastings Center Report.

Blog post
Fang, J. “Why Some Hosts Reject Parasitic Cuckoo Eggs While Others Don’t.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “[Comments on Charging Cellular Telephone Installation to Senate Contingent Fund].” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 17, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton, D. S. “Structural and Geophysical Interpretation of Roatán Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. “Be of Good Fear.” New York Times, 1993.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference S. M. Thompson, “Neuroscience. Matching at the Synapse,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308, no. 5723 (2005): 800–801..
This sentence cites two references S. M. Thompson, “Neuroscience. Matching at the Synapse,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308, no. 5723 (2005): 800–801; B. M. Akiyama and M. D. Stone, “Structural Biology: A Solution to the Telomerase Puzzle,” Nature 496, no. 7444 (2013): 177–78..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: B. M. Akiyama and M. D. Stone, “Structural Biology: A Solution to the Telomerase Puzzle,” Nature 496, no. 7444 (2013): 177–78.
  • Three authors: W. B. Frommer, W. X. Schulze, and S. Lalonde, “Plant Science. Hexokinase, Jack-of-All-Trades,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300, no. 5617 (2003): 261–63.
  • 4 or more authors: Y. Najman et al., “Dating of the Oldest Continental Sediments from the Himalayan Foreland Basin,” Nature 410, no. 6825 (2001): 194–97.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Hastings Center Report
AbbreviationHastings Cent. Rep.
ISSN (print)0093-0334
ISSN (online)1552-146X

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