How to format your references using the Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoelzel, A. R. (2015). CONSERVATION. Can DNA foil the poachers? Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6243), 34–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dye, C., & Raviglione, M. (2013). Perspective: Weigh all TB risks. Nature, 502(7470), S13.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mehlmann, L. M., Jones, T. L. Z., & Jaffe, L. A. (2002). Meiotic arrest in the mouse follicle maintained by a Gs protein in the oocyte. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5585), 1343–1345.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fernandez-Gonzalez, A., La Spada, A. R., Treadaway, J., Higdon, J. C., Harris, B. S., Sidman, R. L., … Zuo, J. (2002). Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) phenotypes caused by mutations in the axotomy-induced gene, Nna1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5561), 1904–1906.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McConnell, J. (2011). Index of Medical Imaging. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Paolantonio, P. (2014). Imaging of Small Bowel, Colon and Rectum. (C. Dromain, Ed.). Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cuevas, E., Zaldívar, D., & Perez-Cisneros, M. (2016). Ellipse Detection on Images Inspired by the Collective Animal Behavior. In D. Zaldívar & M. Perez-Cisneros (Eds.), Applications of Evolutionary Computation in Image Processing and Pattern Recognition (pp. 53–77). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 31). Ancient Viruses Resurrected To Improve Gene Therapy. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). University Research: Policies for the Reimbursement of Indirect Costs Need to Be Updated (No. GAO-10-937). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vestergaard, E. V. (2015). The shadow in Latvian mythological legends: A Jungian perspective (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fitzsimmons, E. G. (2014, March 9). For Families, Memories Mix With Fading Hope. New York Times, p. A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoelzel, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dye & Raviglione, 2013; Hoelzel, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dye & Raviglione, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Mehlmann, Jones, & Jaffe, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fernandez-Gonzalez et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences
AbbreviationNiger. J. Physiol. Sci.
ISSN (print)0794-859X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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