How to format your references using the Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Heijne, G. (2005). Microbiology. Translocation of anthrax toxin: lord of the rings. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5735), 709–710.
A journal article with 2 authors
Medlock, J., & Galvani, A. P. (2009). Optimizing influenza vaccine distribution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5948), 1705–1708.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jaramillo, C., Rueda, M. J., & Mora, G. (2006). Cenozoic plant diversity in the neotropics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5769), 1893–1896.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mechsner, F., Kerzel, D., Knoblich, G., & Prinz, W. (2001). Perceptual basis of bimanual coordination. Nature, 414(6859), 69–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe, P. (2015). Essential Statistics for the Pharmaceutical Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Leszczynski, J., & Shukla, M. K. (Eds.). (2014). Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry III. Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
D’Onofrio, M., Rampazzo, R., Zaggia, S., Longair, M. S., Ferrarese, L., Marziani, P., Sulentic, J. W., van der Kruit, P. C., Laurikainen, E., Elmegreen, D. M., Combes, F., Bertin, G., Fabbiano, G., Giovanelli, R., Calzetti, D., Moss, D. L., Matteucci, F., Djorgovski, S. G., Fraix-Burnet, D., … Tully, B. R. (2016). The Anatomy of Galaxies. In M. D’Onofrio, R. Rampazzo, & S. Zaggia (Eds.), From the Realm of the Nebulae to Populations of Galaxies: Dialogues on a Century of Research (pp. 243–379). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, October 15). Orphaned Chimp Is Adopted By A Pregnant Female In An “Unheard Of” Act. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Adult Education: Measuring Program Results Has Been Challenging (HEHS-95-153). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tourijigian, L. (2015). Fiscal Changes at Dunbar Elementary [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hu, W., & Remnick, N. (2015, August 7). City Requires Tower Checks; Outbreak Toll Climbs to 10. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (von Heijne, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Medlock & Galvani, 2009; von Heijne, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Medlock & Galvani, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Jaramillo et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mechsner et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences
AbbreviationNiger. J. Physiol. Sci.
ISSN (print)0794-859X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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