How to format your references using the Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chiang, T.-C. (2004). Physics. Superconductivity in thin films. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5703), 1900–1901.
A journal article with 2 authors
Forster, P., & Matsumura, S. (2005). Evolution. Did early humans go north or south? Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5724), 965–966.
A journal article with 3 authors
Betschinger, J., Mechtler, K., & Knoblich, J. A. (2003). The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. Nature, 422(6929), 326–330.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wagner, G. P., Kenney-Hunt, J. P., Pavlicev, M., Peck, J. R., Waxman, D., & Cheverud, J. M. (2008). Pleiotropic scaling of gene effects and the “cost of complexity.” Nature, 452(7186), 470–472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beagle, J. R. (2013). Surgical Essentials of Immediate Implant Dentistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Retolaza, J. L. (2016). Social Accounting for Sustainability: Monetizing the Social Value (L. San-José & M. Ruíz-Roqueñi, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chou, H.-M. (2016). Logical Data Resource Storage. In R. B. Fisher, Y.-H. Chen-Burger, D. Giordano, L. Hardman, & F.-P. Lin (Eds.), Fish4Knowledge: Collecting and Analyzing Massive Coral Reef Fish Video Data (pp. 51–57). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, March 14). Video Game Study Suggests Humans Get More Peaceful As The World Ends. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Aviation Finance: Observations on Potential FAA Funding Options (GAO-06-973). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos, C. M. (2017). Is this working? A study on measuring the effectiveness of efforts to diversify the theatre management field [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2005, February 19). Life Is Hard in Russia, And the Beds Are, Too. New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chiang, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chiang, 2004; Forster & Matsumura, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Forster & Matsumura, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Betschinger et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wagner et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences
AbbreviationNiger. J. Physiol. Sci.
ISSN (print)0794-859X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles