How to format your references using the Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Allen, G. E. (2001). Essays on science and society. Is a new eugenics afoot? Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5540), 59–61.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, M. S., & Goodman, D. W. (2004). The structure of catalytically active gold on titania. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5694), 252–255.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowak, M. A., Tarnita, C. E., & Wilson, E. O. (2010). The evolution of eusociality. Nature, 466(7310), 1057–1062.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Moyà-Solà, S., Köhler, M., Alba, D. M., Casanovas-Vilar, I., & Galindo, J. (2004). Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a new Middle Miocene great ape from Spain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5700), 1339–1344.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raz, D., Juhola, A., Serrat-Fernandez, J., & Galis, A. (2006). Fast and Efficient Context-Aware Services. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Awange, J. L. (2016). Geospatial Algebraic Computations: Theory and Applications (B. Paláncz, Ed.; 3rd ed. 2016). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chkadua, O., Duduchava, R., & Kapanadze, D. (2013). Potential Methods for Anisotropic Pseudo-Maxwell Equations in Screen Type Problems. In Y. I. Karlovich, L. Rodino, B. Silbermann, & I. M. Spitkovsky (Eds.), Operator Theory, Pseudo-Differential Equations, and Mathematical Physics: The Vladimir Rabinovich Anniversary Volume (pp. 73–93). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, February 13). Nuclear Fusion Reactions See Net Gain in Energy. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Commercial Aviation: Preliminary Observations on Legacy Airlines’ Financial Condition, Bankruptcy, and Pension Issues (GAO-05-835T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Soltani, A. (2015). Parenting and disciplinary practices of Iranian mothers: A quantitative study [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J. (2017, October 28). Unflinching Faith Moors 2 Victims of Hurricane Sandy in Life’s Storms. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Allen, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Allen, 2001; Chen & Goodman, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen & Goodman, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Nowak et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Moyà-Solà et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences
AbbreviationNiger. J. Physiol. Sci.
ISSN (print)0794-859X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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