How to format your references using the Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xu, Z. (2011). Modernization: One step at a time. Nature, 480(7378), S90-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown, M. E., & Funk, C. C. (2008). Climate. Food security under climate change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5863), 580–581.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunn, E. W., Aknin, L. B., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5870), 1687–1688.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Korniss, G., Novotny, M. A., Guclu, H., Toroczkai, Z., & Rikvold, P. A. (2003). Suppressing roughness of virtual times in parallel discrete-event simulations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5607), 677–679.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waye, J. D., Aisenberg, J., & Rubin, P. H. (2013). Practical Colonoscopy. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Richards, D., & Kang, B. H. (Eds.). (2012). Knowledge Management and Acquisition for Intelligent Systems: 12th Pacific Rim Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, PKAW 2012, Kuching, Malaysia, September 5-6, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7457). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Patiniotakis, I., Rizou, S., Verginadis, Y., & Mentzas, G. (2013). Managing Imprecise Criteria in Cloud Service Ranking with a Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision Making Method. In K.-K. Lau, W. Lamersdorf, & E. Pimentel (Eds.), Service-Oriented and Cloud Computing: Second European Conference, ESOCC 2013, Málaga, Spain, September 11-13, 2013. Proceedings (pp. 34–48). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 24). What Happens If You Add Molten Aluminum To Dry Ice and Liquid Nitrogen? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Federal Documents in Languages Other Than English Published and Distributed in Calendar Years 1995-1997 (GGD-98-99R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tarar, W. A. (2008). A New Finite Element Procedure for Fatigue Life Predictionand High Strain Rate Assessment of Cold Worked Advanced High Strength Steel [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, July 20). The Pulitzer at 100. New York Times, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xu, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brown & Funk, 2008; Xu, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brown & Funk, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Dunn et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Korniss et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences
AbbreviationNiger. J. Physiol. Sci.
ISSN (print)0794-859X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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