How to format your references using the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (ZJLS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feldman J. 2000. Minimization of Boolean complexity in human concept learning. Nature 407: 630–633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bjørnerud MG, Austrheim H. 2006. Geophysics: hot fluids or rock in eclogite metamorphism? Nature 440: E4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fuchs B, Sornette D, Thurner S. 2014. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world. Scientific reports 4: 6526.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Evrard O, Chartin C, Onda Y, Lepage H, Cerdan O, Lefèvre I, Ayrault S. 2014. Renewed soil erosion and remobilisation of radioactive sediment in Fukushima coastal rivers after the 2013 typhoons. Scientific reports 4: 4574.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ancheyta J. 2011. Modeling and Simulation of Catalytic Reactors for Petroleum Refining. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cristofaro ED, Wright M (Eds.). 2013. Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 13th International Symposium, PETS 2013, Bloomington, IN, USA, July 10-12, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
R.b. H. 2008. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere. In: Dobretsov N,, In: Kolchanov N,, In: Rozanov A,, In: Zavarzin G, eds. Biosphere Origin and Evolution. Boston, MA: Springer US, 55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2016. How Events In Panama Created The Modern World (Millions Of Years Ago). IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Rail Safety: The Federal Railroad Administration Is Better Targeting Safety Risks, but Needs to Assess Results to Determine the Impact of Its Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhuang S. 2008. Enhancing Implicit Finite Element Sheet Forming Simulation. Unpublished thesis, Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2011. Juventus, Tainted by a Scandal, Tries to Regain Its Luster. New York Times: B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Feldman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Feldman, 2000; Bjørnerud & Austrheim, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bjørnerud & Austrheim, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Fuchs, Sornette, & Thurner, 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Evrard et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoological Journal of the Linnean Society
AbbreviationZool. J. Linn. Soc.
ISSN (print)0024-4082
ISSN (online)1096-3642
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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