How to format your references using the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (ZJLS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander RM. 2005. Physiology. Walking made simple. Science (New York, N.Y.) 308: 58–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kent DV, Tauxe L. 2005. Corrected Late Triassic latitudes for continents adjacent to the North Atlantic. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 240–244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashita T, Hige T, Takahashi T. 2005. Vesicle endocytosis requires dynamin-dependent GTP hydrolysis at a fast CNS synapse. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 124–127.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Park S, Roelofs J, Kim W, Robert J, Schmidt M, Gygi SP, Finley D. 2009. Hexameric assembly of the proteasomal ATPases is templated through their C termini. Nature 459: 866–870.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allan D, Bragg N. 2012. 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging Design and Evolution. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bacha S. 2014. Power Electronic Converters Modeling and Control: with Case Studies (I Munteanu and AI Bratcu, Eds.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mihara H, Hayashi Y, Yamamoto M. 2013. Performance Evaluation of Fairness between High-Speed TCPs in Wireless Environment. In: Guyot V, ed. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Advanced Infocomm Technology: 5th IEEE International Conference, ICAIT 2012, Paris, France, July 25-27, 2012. Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 5–15.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2015. This Is How SpaceX Plans To Land On Mars. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. ADP Modernization: Health Care Financing Administration’s Software Redesign Contract. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liao X. 2006. Creative Learning for Intelligent Robots. Unpublished thesis, University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. 2016. Bill to Ease Puerto Rico Through $72 Billion Debt Crisis Introduced in House. New York Times: B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alexander, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Kent & Tauxe, 2005; Alexander, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kent & Tauxe, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Yamashita, Hige, & Takahashi, 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Park et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoological Journal of the Linnean Society
AbbreviationZool. J. Linn. Soc.
ISSN (print)0024-4082
ISSN (online)1096-3642
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles