How to format your references using the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (ZJLS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Julien MH. 2015. Physics. Magnetic fields make waves in cuprates. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350: 914–915.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hayes R, Weiss H. 2006. Epidemiology. Understanding HIV epidemic trends in Africa. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311: 620–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wisniewski W, Patschger M, Rüssel C. 2013. Viscous fingering and dendritic growth of surface crystallized Sr2TiSi2O8 fresnoite. Scientific reports 3: 3558.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Poznanski D, Chornock R, Nugent PE, Bloom JS, Filippenko AV, Ganeshalingam M, Leonard DC, Li W, Thomas RC. 2010. An unusually fast-evolving supernova. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327: 58–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mattu A, Grossman SA, Rosen PL. 2016. Geriatric Emergencies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rinderle-Ma S, Sadiq S, Leymann F (Eds.). 2010. Business Process Management Workshops: BPM 2009 International Workshops, Ulm, Germany, September 7, 2009. Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aliev RA, Guirimov BG. 2014. Type-2 Fuzzy Clustering. In: Guirimov BG, ed. Type-2 Fuzzy Neural Networks and Their Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 153–166.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. WATCH: Live HD streaming Of Earth From The International Space Station. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Air Fares and Service at Concentrated Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haws SW. 2012. A multilevel study of schools’ influences on adolescent substance use. Unpublished thesis, University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J. 2017. Forecast for Hurricanes Is Stormier Than Normal. New York Times: A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Julien, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hayes & Weiss, 2006; Julien, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hayes & Weiss, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Wisniewski, Patschger, & Rüssel, 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Poznanski et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoological Journal of the Linnean Society
AbbreviationZool. J. Linn. Soc.
ISSN (print)0024-4082
ISSN (online)1096-3642
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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