How to format your references using the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (ZJLS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zurek WH. 2001. Sub-Planck structure in phase space and its relevance for quantum decoherence. Nature 412: 712–717.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ben-Jacob E, Levine H. 2001. The artistry of nature. Nature 409: 985–986.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoehler TM, Bebout BM, Des Marais DJ. 2001. The role of microbial mats in the production of reduced gases on the early Earth. Nature 412: 324–327.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kumar PR, Yu Y, Sternglanz R, Johnston SA, Joshua-Tor L. 2008. NADP regulates the yeast GAL induction system. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319: 1090–1092.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Avlonas N, Nassos GP. 2013. Practical Sustainability Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Prieto VG (Ed.). 2015. Precision Molecular Pathology of Dermatologic Diseases. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boratyński A. 2007. The Central European Disjunctions in the Range of Norway Spruce. In: Tjoelker MG,, In: Boratyński A,, In: Bugała W, eds. Forestry Sciences. Biology and Ecology of Norway Spruce. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 37–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

Blog post
Andrews R. 2015. Astonishingly Well-Preserved Dinosaur Found With Fossilized Tail Feathers And Skin Tissue. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Space Station: Inadequate Planning and Design Led to Propulsion Module Project Failure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schiffbauer LW. 2013. The pursuit of self-esteem: A help or a hindrance in thriving in the workplace? Unpublished thesis, Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J, Lyons M, Hale M, Genzlinger N. 2017. The Mission: To Transcend Time and Space. New York Times: C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zurek, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Ben-Jacob & Levine, 2001; Zurek, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ben-Jacob & Levine, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Hoehler, Bebout, & Des Marais, 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kumar et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoological Journal of the Linnean Society
AbbreviationZool. J. Linn. Soc.
ISSN (print)0024-4082
ISSN (online)1096-3642
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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