How to format your references using the Sustainable Cities and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainable Cities and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bucksbaum, P. H. (2004). Applied physics. X-ray movies of wiggling crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5702), 1691–1692.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roos, D., & Winterbourn, C. C. (2002). Immunology. Lethal weapons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5568), 669–671.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang, W.-L., He, H.-W., & Yang, Z.-J. (2014). The angiotensinogen gene polymorphism is associated with heart failure among Asians. Scientific Reports, 4, 4207.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ramachandran, S., Arce, F. T., Patel, N. R., Quist, A. P., Cohen, D. A., & Lal, R. (2014). Structure and permeability of ion-channels by integrated AFM and waveguide TIRF microscopy. Scientific Reports, 4, 4424.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davino, C., Furno, M., & Vistocco, D. (2014). Quantile Regression: Theory and Applications. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gabryś-Barker, D., & Gałajda, D. (Eds.). (2016). Positive Psychology Perspectives on Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Schwaiger, M., Raithel, S., & Schloderer, M. (2009). Recognition or rejection – How a company’s reputation influences stakeholder behaviour. In J. Klewes & R. Wreschniok (Eds.), Reputation Capital: Building and Maintaining Trust in the 21st Century (pp. 39–55). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainable Cities and Society.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, January 31). 10 Things You Didn’t Know About Penises. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Changes Needed in Administering Relief to Industries Hurt by Overseas Competition (No. ID-81-42). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aiken, J. (2009). Virtually a leader: Mitigating process losses through shared team states (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2016, October 2). Trump, the Tax Code and a Loophole for the Rich. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bucksbaum, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bucksbaum, 2004; Roos & Winterbourn, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roos & Winterbourn, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Jiang, He, & Yang, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ramachandran et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainable Cities and Society
AbbreviationSustain. Cities Soc.
ISSN (print)2210-6707
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Civil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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