How to format your references using the Sustainable Cities and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainable Cities and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stock, J. M. (2006). Geochemistry. The Hawaiian-Emperor bend: older than expected. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5791), 1250–1251.
A journal article with 2 authors
Otterstrom, J. J., & van Oijen, A. M. (2009). Biochemistry. Nudging through a nucleosome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5940), 547–548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pickrell, J. K., Gilad, Y., & Pritchard, J. K. (2012). Comment on “Widespread RNA and DNA sequence differences in the human transcriptome.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6074), 1302; author reply 1302.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Scott, S. H., Gribble, P. L., Graham, K. M., & Cabel, D. W. (2001). Dissociation between hand motion and population vectors from neural activity in motor cortex. Nature, 413(6852), 161–165.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’Homme, R. (2014). Flows and Chemical Reactions in Heterogeneous Mixtures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brakhage, A. A., & Zipfel, P. F. (Eds.). (2008). Human and Animal Relationships (2nd ed., Vol. 6). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rasse, A., Perronne, J.-M., Muller, P.-A., & Thirion, B. (2006). Using Process Algebra to Validate Behavioral Aspects of Object-Oriented Models. In J.-M. Bruel (Ed.), Satellite Events at the MoDELS 2005 Conference: MoDELS 2005 International Workshops Doctoral Symposium, Educators Symposium Montego Bay, Jamaica, October 2-7, 2005 Revised Selected Papers (pp. 39–47). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainable Cities and Society.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, May 1). Giant Galaxy Expels Star Cluster. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Telecommunications: Additional Federal Efforts Could Help Advance Digital Television Transition (GAO-03-7). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson, K. L. (2017). Putting together the pieces of a social cognition deficit: A retrospective case study [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2004, December 18). Russian Lawmakers Advance Counterterrorism Measures. New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stock, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Otterstrom & van Oijen, 2009; Stock, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Otterstrom & van Oijen, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Pickrell et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Scott et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainable Cities and Society
AbbreviationSustain. Cities Soc.
ISSN (print)2210-6707
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Civil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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