How to format your references using the Frontiers in Schizophrenia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Schizophrenia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Swanson, R. M. (2009). Applied physics. Photovoltaics power up. Science 324, 891–892.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lotti, M., and Nicotera, P. (2002). Toxicology: a risky business. Nature 416, 481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, S.-K., Badea, T. C., and Hattar, S. (2011). Photoentrainment and pupillary light reflex are mediated by distinct populations of ipRGCs. Nature 476, 92–95.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brandt, K., Wolff, M. F. H., Salikov, V., Heinrich, S., and Schneider, G. A. (2013). A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure. Sci. Rep. 3, 2322.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Danby, F. W. (2014). Acne. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mamon, R. S., and Elliott, R. J. eds. (2014). Hidden Markov Models in Finance: Further Developments and Applications, Volume II. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Brna, P. (2008). “Narrative Interactive Multimedia Learning Environments: Achievements and Challenges,” in New Directions in Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Studies in Computational Intelligence., eds. G. A. Tsihrintzis, M. Virvou, R. J. Howlett, and L. C. Jain (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Schizophrenia.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). New Genetic Evidence Reveals Gaétan Dugas Was Not “Patient Zero” For HIV In North America. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). NASA Supplier Base: Challenges Exist in Transitioning from the Space Shuttle Program to the Next Generation of Human Space Flight Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whittle, C. M. (2009). The genomic distribution and function of NFI and histone variant H2A.Z during Caenorhabditis elegans development.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017). Political Journalist Halperin Posts Apology to Women He ‘Mistreated.’ New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Swanson, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Lotti and Nicotera, 2002; Swanson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lotti and Nicotera, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Brandt et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Schizophrenia
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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