How to format your references using the Frontiers in Schizophrenia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Schizophrenia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knowles, S. M. (2010). Intellectual property. Fixing the legal framework for pharmaceutical research. Science 327, 1083–1084.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sato, M., and Sato, K. (2011). Degradation of paternal mitochondria by fertilization-triggered autophagy in C. elegans embryos. Science 334, 1141–1144.
A journal article with 3 authors
McDermott, F., Mattey, D. P., and Hawkesworth, C. (2001). Centennial-scale Holocene climate variability revealed by a high-resolution speleothem delta 18O record from SW Ireland. Science 294, 1328–1331.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Weimerskirch, H., Bonadonna, F., Bailleul, F., Mabille, G., Dell’Omo, G., and Lipp, H.-P. (2002). GPS tracking of foraging albatrosses. Science 295, 1259.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levander, C. F. (2013). Where is American Literature?. Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell.
An edited book
Schubert, H., and Kuznetsov, A. eds. (2008). Detection of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Cuzzocrea, A. (2009). “CAMS: OLAPing Multidimensional Data Streams Efficiently,” in Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery: 11th International Conference, DaWaK 2009 Linz, Austria, August 31–September 2, 2009 Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. T. B. Pedersen, M. K. Mohania, and A. M. Tjoa (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 48–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Schizophrenia.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). NASA Wants To Establish A Floating Cloud City To Study Venus. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Private Management of Public Schools: Early Experiences in Four School Districts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zamudio, R. (2015). From community college to 4-year institutions: Latinas’ successful completion of STEM baccalaureate degrees.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., and Belson, K. (2012). Open Is Drawing Record Crowds, but Fans Are Feeling the Squeeze. New York Times, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knowles, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Knowles, 2010; Sato and Sato, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sato and Sato, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Weimerskirch et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Schizophrenia
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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