How to format your references using the Frontiers in Schizophrenia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Schizophrenia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barbier, E. B. (2014). Economics: Account for depreciation of natural capital. Nature 515, 32–33.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hardie, R. C., and Franze, K. (2012). Photomechanical responses in Drosophila photoreceptors. Science 338, 260–263.
A journal article with 3 authors
Polley, D. B., Kvasnák, E., and Frostig, R. D. (2004). Naturalistic experience transforms sensory maps in the adult cortex of caged animals. Nature 429, 67–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kang, J., Mathew, V., Gim, J., Kim, S., Song, J., Im, W. B., et al. (2014). Pyro-synthesis of a high rate nano-Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode with mixed morphology for advanced Li-ion batteries. Sci. Rep. 4, 4047.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tibergien, M., and Pomering, R. (2011). Practice Made (More) Perfect. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ewing, R. (2013). Measuring Urban Design: Metrics for Livable Places. , eds. O. Clemente, K. M. Neckerman, M. Purciel-Hill, J. W. Quinn, and A. Rundle Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.
A chapter in an edited book
Cimolini, P., and Cannell, K. (2012). “Project Management,” in Agile Oracle Application Express, ed. K. Cannell (Berkeley, CA: Apress), 91–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Schizophrenia.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Our Galaxy Is Much Lighter Than We Thought. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017). Information Technology: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Needs to Strengthen Its Strategic Planning and Oversight to Modernize Legacy Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tian, C. Y. (2010). Studies of equilibrium conditions in housing markets.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2012). New Pension Rules Seek Disclosure. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barbier, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Barbier, 2014; Hardie and Franze, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hardie and Franze, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Kang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Schizophrenia
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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