How to format your references using the Frontiers in Schizophrenia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Schizophrenia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wicherts, J. M. (2011). Psychology must learn a lesson from fraud case. Nature 480, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Headlam, D., and Brown, M. (2007). Comment on “The geometry of musical chords.” Science 315, 330; author reply 330.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chouard, T., Weiss, U., and Dhand, R. (2002). Good “omics” for the poor? Nature 419, 489.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Romanov, S. R., Kozakiewicz, B. K., Holst, C. R., Stampfer, M. R., Haupt, L. M., and Tlsty, T. D. (2001). Normal human mammary epithelial cells spontaneously escape senescence and acquire genomic changes. Nature 409, 633–637.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mix, P. E. (2004). Introduction to Nondestructive Testing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lin, D., Wang, X., and Yung, M. eds. (2016). Information Security and Cryptology: 11th International Conference, Inscrypt 2015, Beijing, China, November 1-3, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Erzin, A. I., and Plotnikov, R. V. (2011). “Wireless Sensor Network’s Lifetime Maximization Problem in Case of Given Set of Covers,” in Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2011: International Conference, Santander, Spain, June 20-23, 2011. Proceedings, Part V Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. B. Murgante, O. Gervasi, A. Iglesias, D. Taniar, and B. O. Apduhan (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 44–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Schizophrenia.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Scientists May Have Finally Figured Out Who Is The Best Superhero. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). Review of Army’s Efforts To Develop TACFIRE. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rostambeigi, N. (2010). Analyzing the correlates of patients’ adoption of preventative health services: Perceived risk, cost and availability of health care services.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017). For Revival, MTV Pivots To Its Past. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wicherts, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Headlam and Brown, 2007; Wicherts, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Headlam and Brown, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Romanov et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Schizophrenia
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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