How to format your references using the Frontiers in Schizophrenia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Schizophrenia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lodders, K. (2004). Astronomy. Brown dwarfs--faint at heart, rich in chemistry. Science 303, 323–324.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dangl, J. L., and Jones, J. D. (2001). Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection. Nature 411, 826–833.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pahwa, S., Scoglio, C., and Scala, A. (2014). Abruptness of cascade failures in power grids. Sci. Rep. 4, 3694.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alessandrini, M., Micarelli, A., Chiaravalloti, A., Candidi, M., Bruno, E., Di Pietro, B., et al. (2014). Cortico-subcortical metabolic correlates of olfactory processing in healthy resting subjects. Sci. Rep. 4, 5146.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schiesser, W. E. (2017). Spline Collocation Methods for Partial Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pink, W. T., and Noblit, G. W. eds. (2007). International Handbook of Urban Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiles, R., Klevens, M., and Hughes, E. (2014). “Surveillance and Seroepidemiology,” in Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, eds. R. A. Kaslow, L. R. Stanberry, and J. W. Le Duc (Boston, MA: Springer US), 63–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Schizophrenia.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017). Why Some Girls Grow Breasts Early – And How New Findings Could Cut Cancer Risks. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: FAA Is Making Progress But Important Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, J. R. (2010). Trajectories of parents’ experiences in discovering, reporting, and living with the aftermath of middle school bullying.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014). Baton in This Race Is the Conductor’s. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lodders, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Dangl and Jones, 2001; Lodders, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dangl and Jones, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Alessandrini et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Schizophrenia
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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