How to format your references using the OR Spectrum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for OR Spectrum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ide S (2010) Striations, duration, migration and tidal response in deep tremor. Nature 466:356–359
A journal article with 2 authors
Nathanson N, Fine P (2002) Virology. Poliomyelitis eradication--a dangerous endgame. Science 296:269–270
A journal article with 3 authors
Levin EJ, Quick M, Zhou M (2009) Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of the kidney urea transporter. Nature 462:757–761
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kim BJ, Ohsumi H, Komesu T, et al (2009) Phase-sensitive observation of a spin-orbital Mott state in Sr2IrO4. Science 323:1329–1332

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Motai Ph.D. Y (2015) Data-Variant Kernel Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Conforti M (2014) Integer Programming. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Awodey S (2011) From Sets to Types, to Categories, to Sets. In: Sommaruga G (ed) Foundational Theories of Classical and Constructive Mathematics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 113–125

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for OR Spectrum.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Another Newly Discovered Asteroid Will Fly By Earth Tonight. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) High Speed Passenger Rail: Future Development Will Depend on Addressing Financial and Other Challenges and Establishing a Clear Federal Role. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alimo CJ (2010) From dialogue to action: The development of White racial allies. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M (2017) Aiming at Trump, Onstage. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ide 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Nathanson and Fine 2002; Ide 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nathanson and Fine 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleOR Spectrum
AbbreviationOR Spectr.
ISSN (print)0171-6468
ISSN (online)1436-6304
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research

Other styles