How to format your references using the OR Spectrum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for OR Spectrum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spitzer NC (2015) DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE. Neurotransmitter-tailored dendritic trees. Science 350:510–511
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhalla N, Dernburg AF (2005) A conserved checkpoint monitors meiotic chromosome synapsis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 310:1683–1686
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo J, Zhu J, Ye H (2004) Comment on “Tubular graphite cones.” Science 303:766; author reply 766
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Roux A, Uyhazi K, Frost A, De Camilli P (2006) GTP-dependent twisting of dynamin implicates constriction and tension in membrane fission. Nature 441:528–531

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soprano A (2015) Liquidity Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Srinivasulu C (2012) South Asian Mammals: Their Diversity, Distribution, and Status. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
White JT, Motlagh HN, Li J, et al (2015) Allosteric Regulation and Intrinsic Disorder in Nuclear Hormone Receptors. In: McEwan IJ, Kumar R (eds) Nuclear Receptors: From Structure to the Clinic. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 73–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for OR Spectrum.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017) Website That Tracked Fake Science Journals Has Suddenly Vanished. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Tax Policy: Uncertain Impact of Repealing the Deferral for Reinvested Shipping Income. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wall JD (2017) The Effects of Acute L-Dopa on Brux-like and Masticatory Motor Patterns: EMG Phase Analysis in Rats. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR (2017) Move Over, Bach. Handel’s Moving In. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spitzer 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bhalla and Dernburg 2005; Spitzer 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bhalla and Dernburg 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Roux et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleOR Spectrum
AbbreviationOR Spectr.
ISSN (print)0171-6468
ISSN (online)1436-6304
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research

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