How to format your references using the OR Spectrum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for OR Spectrum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oullier O (2012) Clear up this fuzzy thinking on brain scans. Nature 483:7
A journal article with 2 authors
Strausberg RL, Schreiber SL (2003) From knowing to controlling: a path from genomics to drugs using small molecule probes. Science 300:294–295
A journal article with 3 authors
Richardson CE, Kooistra T, Kim DH (2010) An essential role for XBP-1 in host protection against immune activation in C. elegans. Nature 463:1092–1095
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Huxley A, Rodiere P, Paul DM, et al (2000) Realignment of the flux-line lattice by a change in the symmetry of superconductivity in UPt3. Nature 406:160–164

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korst J, Pronk V (2006) Multimedia Storage and Retrieval. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Kurosawa K, Hanaoka G (eds) (2013) Public-Key Cryptography – PKC 2013: 16th International Conference on Practice and Theory in Public-Key Cryptography, Nara, Japan, February 26 – March 1, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Valle M, Zamorani MP (2007) Nerve and Blood Vessels. In: Martinoli C (ed) Ultrasound of the Musculoskeletal System. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 97–136

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for OR Spectrum.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) One Year On From Pioneering Face Transplant, Patient Says Surgery Has “Given Me Back My Life.” In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/one-year-on-pioneering-face-transplant-patient-surgery-given-back-life/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Child Care: Information on Integrating Early Care and Education Funding. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamanna CA (2012) The structure and function of subalpine ecosystems in the face of climate change. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) Saving the World. Smelling Good, Too. New York Times E6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Oullier 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Strausberg and Schreiber 2003; Oullier 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strausberg and Schreiber 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Huxley et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleOR Spectrum
AbbreviationOR Spectr.
ISSN (print)0171-6468
ISSN (online)1436-6304
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research

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