How to format your references using the OR Spectrum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for OR Spectrum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Naismith JH (2000) Don’t let politics put Diamond at risk. Nature 403:698
A journal article with 2 authors
Yoshida N, Toyoda S (2000) Constraining the atmospheric N2O budget from intramolecular site preference in N2O isotopomers. Nature 405:330–334
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailor MH, Sun X, Al-Hashimi HM (2010) Topology links RNA secondary structure with global conformation, dynamics, and adaptation. Science 327:202–206
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Thomas A, Rahmanian S, Bordbar A, et al (2014) Network reconstruction of platelet metabolism identifies metabolic signature for aspirin resistance. Sci Rep 4:3925

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell D (2008) The JCT Intermediate Building Contracts 2005. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Lacroix C, Mendels P, Mila F (eds) (2011) Introduction to Frustrated Magnetism: Materials, Experiments, Theory. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kantarci F, Mihmanli İ, MacLennan GT (2013) Neoplasms of the Spermatic Cord and Testicular Adnexae. In: Dogra VS, MacLennan GT (eds) Genitourinary Radiology: Male Genital Tract, Adrenal and Retroperitoneum: The Pathologic Basis. Springer, London, pp 95–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for OR Spectrum.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Court Rules That Kids Can Sue US Government Over Climate Change. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Rail Safety: The Federal Railroad Administration Is Taking Steps to Better Target Its Oversight, but Assessment of Results Is Needed to Determine Impact. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen T (2012) Nail technician students’ awareness of some health effects of long-term exposure to chemicals used in nail salons and their understanding of health protection. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M (2017) Bernadette Peters To Join ‘Hello, Dolly!’ New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Naismith 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Naismith 2000; Yoshida and Toyoda 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yoshida and Toyoda 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Thomas et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOR Spectrum
AbbreviationOR Spectr.
ISSN (print)0171-6468
ISSN (online)1436-6304
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research

Other styles