How to format your references using the Surveys in Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surveys in Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gladstone JC (2014) Ultraluminous X-ray sources: Small field with a large impact. Nature 514:171–172
A journal article with 2 authors
Ma J, Karaman I (2010) Materials science. Expanding the repertoire of shape memory alloys. Science 327:1468–1469
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuba H, Oichi Y, Ohmori H (2010) Presynaptic activity regulates Na(+) channel distribution at the axon initial segment. Nature 465:1075–1078
A journal article with 5 or more authors
McDaniell R, Lee B-K, Song L, et al (2010) Heritable individual-specific and allele-specific chromatin signatures in humans. Science 328:235–239

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mishra AR (2010) Cellular Technologies for Emerging Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Marques de Sá JP (ed) (2007) Applied Statistics Using SPSS, STATISTICA, MATLAB and R. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Seeling P, Fitzek FHP, Reisslein M (2007) Video Trace Generation. In: Fitzek FHP, Reisslein M (eds) Video Traces for Network Performance Evaluation: A Comprehensive Overview and Guide on Video Traces and Their Utilization in Networking Research. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 59–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surveys in Geophysics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How We Plan To Bring Dark Matter To Light. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Comments on Legislation To Establish a Department of Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown JD (2012) Disparity in healthcare among Black Americans in the United States, a review of the literature. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ (2017) Activist Fund Pushes Nestlé For Shake-Up. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gladstone 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ma and Karaman 2010; Gladstone 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ma and Karaman 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (McDaniell et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleSurveys in Geophysics
AbbreviationSurv. Geophys.
ISSN (print)0169-3298
ISSN (online)1573-0956
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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