How to format your references using the Surveys in Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surveys in Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E (2002) Call for cloning ban splits UN. Nature 416:3
A journal article with 2 authors
Gronewold AD, Stow CA (2014) Environment. Water loss from the Great Lakes. Science 343:1084–1085
A journal article with 3 authors
Ford EB, Seager S, Turner EL (2001) Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability. Nature 412:885–887
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Garabato ACN, Stevens DP, Watson AJ, Roether W (2007) Short-circuiting of the overturning circulation in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Nature 447:194–197

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwartz RA, Carew MG, Maksimenko T (2010) Micro Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Arvanitopoulos C, Botsiou KE (eds) (2010) The Constantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy Yearbook 2010. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
de Andrade MJ, de Oliveira FF, Faraco B, et al (2011) Optoeletronic and Ferroeletric Applications. In: Bergmann CP, Andrade MJ de (eds) Nanostructured Materials for Engineering Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 41–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surveys in Geophysics.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Is It True Only Half Your Friends Actually Like You? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Airport Development Needs: Estimating Future Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Layne LL (2008) Military leadership: Encouraging enlisted personnel to participate in continuing education. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2005) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: 7 Killed In North Caucasus Shootout. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Check 2002; Gronewold and Stow 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gronewold and Stow 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Garabato et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSurveys in Geophysics
AbbreviationSurv. Geophys.
ISSN (print)0169-3298
ISSN (online)1573-0956
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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