How to format your references using the Biomedical Signal Processing and Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Signal Processing and Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Lewis, Chemistry in context, Nature. 446 (2007) 464–465.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.R. Briffa, T.J. Osborn, Paleoclimate. Blowing hot and cold, Science. 295 (2002) 2227–2228.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.N. Lightowlers, R.W. Taylor, D.M. Turnbull, Mutations causing mitochondrial disease: What is new and what challenges remain?, Science. 349 (2015) 1494–1499.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.Y. Chen, Z. Tesanovic, R.H. Liu, X.H. Chen, C.L. Chien, A BCS-like gap in the superconductor SmFeAsO0.85F0.15, Nature. 453 (2008) 1224–1227.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.R. Denny, S.J. Butterworth, A Guide to Canine and Feline Orthopaedic Surgery, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
J. Hunsinger, L. Klastrup, M. Allen, eds., International Handbook of Internet Research, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
M.H. Zeynalova, R.B. Rustamov, S.E. Salahova, Advanced Space Technology for Oil Spill Detection, in: P. Olla (Ed.), Space Technologies for the Benefit of Human Society and Earth, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009: pp. 99–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Signal Processing and Control.

Blog post
E. Andrew, SARS Pandemic Originated in Bats, IFLScience. (2013). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Higher Education: Information Sharing Could Help Institutions Identify and Address Challenges Some Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Students Face, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.K. Butler, Error Floors of LDPC Codes and Related Topics, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hodara, A Museum’s New Spaces for Contemporary Art, New York Times. (2015) CT9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Signal Processing and Control
AbbreviationBiomed. Signal Process. Control
ISSN (print)1746-8094
ScopeSignal Processing
Health Informatics

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