How to format your references using the Biomedical Signal Processing and Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Signal Processing and Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Spurgeon, Canada boosts spending on science, Nature. 421 (2003) 880.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.T. Froehler, C.J. Duffy, Cortical neurons encoding path and place: where you go is where you are, Science. 295 (2002) 2462–2465.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Coulthard, W. Erb, V.K. Aggarwal, Stereocontrolled organocatalytic synthesis of prostaglandin PGF2α in seven steps, Nature. 489 (2012) 278–281.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.H. Lim, M. Lenarz, G. Joseph, T. Lenarz, Frequency representation within the human brain: stability versus plasticity, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y. Omura, A. Mallik, N. Matsuo, MOS Devices for Low-Voltage and Low-Energy Applications, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2016.
An edited book
C. Köppl, G.A. Manley, A.N. Popper, R.R. Fay, eds., Insights from Comparative Hearing Research, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J.-P. Bault, L. Loeuillet, Tips and Traps, in: L. Loeuillet (Ed.), The Normal and Pathological Fetal Brain: Ultrasonographic Features, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 131–134.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Signal Processing and Control.

Blog post
R. Andrews, A Step-By-Step Guide To Death By Lava Flow, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, On-the-Job Training: Federal Highway Administration Needs to Strengthen Program Assessment, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F.G. Giuseffi, Investigation of the Influence of the Socratic Method on Leadership Skills among JROTC Cadet Leaders at a Military Boarding School, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A. Stevenson, Big Investors Ripe for a Fight, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Signal Processing and Control
AbbreviationBiomed. Signal Process. Control
ISSN (print)1746-8094
ScopeSignal Processing
Health Informatics

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