How to format your references using the Biomedical Signal Processing and Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Signal Processing and Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Savage, Electrochemistry: Liquid assets, Nature. 526 (2015) S98-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Allenby, J. Fink, Toward inherently secure and resilient societies, Science. 309 (2005) 1034–1036.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Kohguchi, T. Suzuki, M.H. Alexander, Fully state-resolved differential cross sections for the inelastic scattering of the open-shell NO molecule by Ar, Science. 294 (2001) 832–834.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.D. Stuchell-Brereton, J.J. Skalicky, C. Kieffer, M.A. Karren, S. Ghaffarian, W.I. Sundquist, ESCRT-III recognition by VPS4 ATPases, Nature. 449 (2007) 740–744.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Anderson, M. Gaare, J. Holguín, N. Bailey, T. Pratley, Professional Clojure, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2016.
An edited book
G.B. Gudmundsdottir, K.B. Vasbø, eds., Methodological Challenges When Exploring Digital Learning Spaces in Education, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Adeli, M. Sinaee, M.J. Zomorodian, A. Hamzeh, Harmony-Based Feature Weighting to Improve the Nearest Neighbor Classification, in: N. Meghanathan, D. Nagamalai, N. Chaki (Eds.), Advances in Computing and Information Technology: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Advances in Computing and Information Technology (ACITY) July 13-15, 2012, Chennai, India - Volume 2, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 27–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Signal Processing and Control.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Finding Meteorite Impacts In Aboriginal Oral Tradition, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Teacher Quality: Sustained Coordination among Key Federal Education Programs Could Enhance State Efforts to Improve Teacher Quality, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.Y. Alzaaq, Arabic adaptation of loanwords: An empirical examination of pharyngealization and vowel epenthesis, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
L. Saslow, Nassau Coliseum Moves Closer to Renovation, New York Times. (2007) 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Signal Processing and Control
AbbreviationBiomed. Signal Process. Control
ISSN (print)1746-8094
ScopeSignal Processing
Health Informatics

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