How to format your references using the Discovery Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discovery Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Czeisler CA. Perspective: casting light on sleep deficiency. Nature 497(7450):S13, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Robbins DW, Hartwig JF. A simple, multidimensional approach to high-throughput discovery of catalytic reactions. Science 333(6048):1423–1427, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nozaki T, Kato Y, Suzuki K. Late Jurassic ocean anoxic event: evidence from voluminous sulphide deposition and preservation in the Panthalassa. Sci Rep 3:1889, 2013.
A journal article with 21 or more authors
Gros J, Feistel K, Viebahn C, Blum M, Tabin CJ. Cell movements at Hensen’s node establish left/right asymmetric gene expression in the chick. Science 324(5929):941–944, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jank W, Shmueli G. Modeling Online Auctions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
Schomburg D, Schomburg I (eds.). Springer Handbook of Enzymes: Class 1 • Oxidoreductases VIII EC 1.5. Second Edition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Graves PR, Jackson I, Anscher MS, Mikkelsen R, Vujaskovic Z. Biodetection and Biointervention: Cytokine Pathways as a Rationale for Anti-cytokine Interventions Post-Radiation. In: ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment: Volume 1: General Concepts and Specific Precepts. Rubin P , Constine LS , Marks LB (eds.). pp.53–64. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discovery Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Is Your Religion Ready To Meet ET? IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. SSA Initiatives to Identify Coaching. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knight M. Technological Advancement in Conflict Assessment: A Case Study of the Fund for Peace’s Universal Network of Local Knowledge in Liberia. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yeginsu C, Rao PS. Malala Yousafzai, Girls’ Advocate Shot by Taliban, Has Been Accepted to Oxford. New York Times:A4, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Czeisler, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Robbins and Hartwig, 2011; Czeisler, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Robbins and Hartwig, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Gros et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscovery Medicine
ISSN (print)1539-6509
ISSN (online)1944-7930

Other styles