How to format your references using the Discovery Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discovery Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. In search of Green Arabia. Science 345(6200):994–997, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wells JA, Kossiakoff AA. Cell biology. New tricks for an old dimer. Science 344(6185):703–704, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brose U, Williams RJ, Martinez ND. Comment on “Foraging adaptation and the relationship between food-web complexity and stability.” Science 301(5635):918; author reply 918, 2003.
A journal article with 21 or more authors
Daffis S, Szretter KJ, Schriewer J, Li J, Youn S, Errett J, Lin T-Y, Schneller S, Zust R, Dong H, Thiel V, Sen GC, Fensterl V, Klimstra WB, Pierson TC, Buller RM, Gale M Jr, Shi P-Y, Diamond MS. 2’-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap evades host restriction by IFIT family members. Nature 468(7322):452–456, 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wood J, Brown W, Howe H. IT Auditing and Application Controls for Small and Mid-Sized Enterprises. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
Nakamura H, Isobe A, Minobe S, Mitsudera H, Nonaka M, Suga T (eds.). “Hot Spots” in the Climate System: New Developments in the Extratropical Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Research. 1st ed. 2016. Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Friederich B, Laachachi A, Ferriol M, Ruch D, Cochez M, Toniazzo V. Improvement of Thermal Stability and Fire Behaviour of pmma by a (Metal Oxide Nanoparticles/Ammonium Polyphosphate/ Melamine Polyphosphate) Ternary System. In: Integrated Systems, Design and Technology 2010: Knowledge Transfer in New Technologies. Fathi M , Holland A , Ansari F , Weber C (eds.). pp.47–58. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discovery Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Amazing Footage Captures Part Of A Chinese Rocket Burning Up Over The US. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Timely Completion of FAA’s Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System Software Is at Risk. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dzubaty DR. Understanding the undergraduate experience of the baccalaureate nursing student with English as an additional language. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Weigh if Cash Hidden Is Cash Laundered. New York Times:A16, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler, 2014; Wells and Kossiakoff, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wells and Kossiakoff, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Daffis et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscovery Medicine
ISSN (print)1539-6509
ISSN (online)1944-7930

Other styles