How to format your references using the Discovery Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discovery Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guillén N. Infection biology: Nibbled to death. Nature 508(7497):462–463, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luo M-X, Wang X. Parallel photonic quantum computation assisted by quantum dots in one-side optical microcavities. Sci Rep 4:5732, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson KS, Riser SC, Karl DM. Nitrate supply from deep to near-surface waters of the North Pacific subtropical gyre. Nature 465(7301):1062–1065, 2010.
A journal article with 21 or more authors
Sullivan CS, Grundhoff AT, Tevethia S, Pipas JM, Ganem D. SV40-encoded microRNAs regulate viral gene expression and reduce susceptibility to cytotoxic T cells. Nature 435(7042):682–686, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schrör K. Acetylsalicylic Acid. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2016.
An edited book
Kole C (ed.). Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources: Industrial Crops. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu H, Ma J. The Design Analysis Based on Numerical Control Lathe Manipulator Dummy Prototype Engine. In: Advances in Mechanical and Electronic Engineering: Volume 1. Jin D , Lin S (eds.). pp.15–20. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discovery Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. What Would Happen If A Nuclear Bomb Was Dropped On A City? IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. A Bibliography of Documents Issued by the GAO on Matters Related to: ADP. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mehta K. An optimized modified booth recoder for efficient design of the add-multiply operator. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wallace N. The Minivan vs. the Maserati. New York Times:A27, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guillén, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Guillén, 2014; Luo and Wang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luo and Wang, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sullivan et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscovery Medicine
ISSN (print)1539-6509
ISSN (online)1944-7930

Other styles