How to format your references using the Survey of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Survey of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shastri N. Cell biology. Peptides, scrambled and stitched. Science. 2006;313(5792):1398-1399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Annas GJ, Elias S. Politics, morals and embryos. Nature. 2004;431(7004):19-20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim H-J, Lee J-H, Cho J-H. Antiferromagnetic Slater insulator phase of Na₂IrO₃. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5253.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Barbeau K, Rue EL, Bruland KW, Butler A. Photochemical cycling of iron in the surface ocean mediated by microbial iron(III)-binding ligands. Nature. 2001;413(6854):409-413.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Warnock G, Ghafary M, Shaheen G. Alcatel-Lucent Service Routing Architect (SRA) Self-Study Guide. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Rosengren S, Dahlén M, Okazaki S, eds. Advances in Advertising Research (Vol. IV): The Changing Roles of Advertising. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Rotilio M, De Berardinis P, Cucchiella F. Renewable Energy Sources in Minor Historical Centers. New Scenarios of Sustainable Development of the Territory. In: Cucchiella F, Koh L, eds. Sustainable Future Energy Technology and Supply Chains: A Multi-Perspective Analysis. Green Energy and Technology. Springer International Publishing; 2015:75-106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Survey of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Is Going On In Your Brain When You Sleep? IFLScience. Published April 9, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Efforts to Modernize Oceanic System Delayed. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rahmani M. On the calculation of time-domain impulse-response of systems from band-limited scattering-parameters using wavelet transform. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. A Ratings Milestone For ‘Game of Thrones.’ New York Times. August 28, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurvey of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationSurv. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0039-6257
ISSN (online)1879-3304

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