How to format your references using the Survey of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Survey of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott A. WHO plans study of Gulf War fallout. Nature. 2001;413(6852):97.
A journal article with 2 authors
Braakman I, Otsu M. Biochemistry. Cargo load reduction. Science. 2008;321(5888):499-500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grigoryan G, Reinke AW, Keating AE. Design of protein-interaction specificity gives selective bZIP-binding peptides. Nature. 2009;458(7240):859-864.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Clark PU, McCabe AM, Mix AC, Weaver AJ. Rapid rise of sea level 19,000 years ago and its global implications. Science. 2004;304(5674):1141-1144.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Black R. Pragmatic Software Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Cheah CC. Task-Space Sensory Feedback Control of Robot Manipulators. Vol 73. (Li X, ed.). Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Papandreou G, Katsamanis A, Katsamanis A, Pitsikalis V, Maragos P. Adaptive Multimodal Fusion by Uncertainty Compensation with Application to Audio-Visual Speech Recognition. In: Maragos P, Potamianos A, Gros P, eds. Multimodal Processing and Interaction: Audio, Video, Text. Springer US; 2008:1-15.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Survey of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. World’s First Three-Parent Baby Raises Questions About Long-Term Health Risks. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security Information Sharing: Stakeholder Satisfaction Varies; TSA Could Take Additional Actions to Strengthen Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dotson KT. Smoke Points of Microgravity and Normal Gravity Coflow Diffusion Flames. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G. Seeking Stars, Finding Creationism. New York Times. October 21, 2014:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurvey of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationSurv. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0039-6257
ISSN (online)1879-3304

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