How to format your references using the Survey of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Survey of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sterman JD. Economics. Risk communication on climate: mental models and mass balance. Science. 2008;322(5901):532-533.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nakatani H, Yamaguchi Y. Quick concurrent responses to global and local cognitive information underlie intuitive understanding in board-game experts. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5894.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ishishita S, Matsuda Y, Kitada K. Genetic evidence suggests that Spata22 is required for the maintenance of Rad51 foci in mammalian meiosis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6148.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Iwai M, Pack CG, Takenaka Y, Sako Y, Nakano A. Photosystem II antenna phosphorylation-dependent protein diffusion determined by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2833.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sandén BI. Design of Multithreaded Software. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Huang T, Zeng Z, Li C, Leung CS, eds. Neural Information Processing: 19th International Conference, ICONIP 2012, Doha, Qatar, November 12-15, 2012, Proceedings, Part III. Vol 7665. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Lambrechts J, Sinha S. The Sub-systems of an Energy Harvesting Device: Focus on RFID Fundamentals. In: Sinha S, ed. Microsensing Networks for Sustainable Cities. Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation. Springer International Publishing; 2016:135-163.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Survey of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. The Jet Flows Of Jupiter Recreated In The Lab For The First Time. IFLScience. Published January 24, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: VA and DOD Are Making Progress in Sharing Medical Information, but Are Far from Comprehensive Electronic Medical Records. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payan Venegas R. Factors Associated with the Lack of a Regular Health Care Provider for Latinos: Consequences and Reasons. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. Wells Fargo Case Tests a Get-Tough Approach. New York Times. September 23, 2016:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurvey of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationSurv. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0039-6257
ISSN (online)1879-3304

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