How to format your references using the Survey of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Survey of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marris E. India in demand. Nature. 2005;433(7028):902-903.
A journal article with 2 authors
Movassaghi M, Jacobsen EN. Chemistry. The simplest “enzyme.” Science. 2002;298(5600):1904-1905.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alle H, Roth A, Geiger JRP. Energy-efficient action potentials in hippocampal mossy fibers. Science. 2009;325(5946):1405-1408.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chang SY, Li CE, Huang YC, Hsu HF, Yeh JW, Lin SJ. Structural and thermodynamic factors of suppressed interdiffusion kinetics in multi-component high-entropy materials. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4162.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’homme R. Flows and Chemical Reactions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Tomashefski JF, Cagle PT, Farver CF, Fraire AE, eds. Dail and Hammar’s Pulmonary Pathology: Volume I: Nonneoplastic Lung Disease. Third Edition. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
de Pedraza J, Carrasco RM, Domínguez-Villar D. Geomorphology of La Pedriza Granitic Massif, Guadarrama Range. In: Gutiérrez F, Gutiérrez M, eds. Landscapes and Landforms of Spain. World Geomorphological Landscapes. Springer Netherlands; 2014:71-80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Survey of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Taub B. New Research Reveals How Cocaine Affects Your DNA. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Preliminary Views on Options for Additional Fiscal Oversight of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sidwell MD. Indirect Measures as Predictors of Social Skills Observed through Means of Direct Observation. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Truth Lurks In Spoof Of Singletary. New York Times. December 29, 2010:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurvey of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationSurv. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0039-6257
ISSN (online)1879-3304

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