How to format your references using the Survey of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Survey of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
McLaren A. Stem cells: golden opportunities with ethical baggage. Science. 2000;288(5472):1778.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Marchiori D, Warglien M. Predicting human interactive learning by regret-driven neural networks. Science. 2008;319(5866):1111-1113.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Parkinson GN, Lee MPH, Neidle S. Crystal structure of parallel quadruplexes from human telomeric DNA. Nature. 2002;417(6891):876-880.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Kim BN, Hiraga K, Morita K, Sakka Y. A high-strain-rate superplastic ceramic. Nature. 2001;413(6853):288-291.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Conklin AR Jr. Introduction to Soil Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Mudacumura G, Morçöl G, eds. Challenges to Democratic Governance in Developing Countries. Vol 11. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Corbetta S, Fornaciari W. Exploiting Thermal Coupling Information in MPSoC Dynamic Thermal Management. In: Kubátová H, Hochberger C, Daněk M, Sick B, eds. Architecture of Computing Systems – ARCS 2013: 26th International Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, February 19-22, 2013. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:50-61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Survey of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Good News For The Only Place On Earth where Tigers, Rhinos, Orangutans And Elephants Live Together. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/good-news-only-place-earth-where-tigers-rhinos-orangutans-and-elephants-live/. Published May 5, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Securities and Exchange Commission: Greater Attention Is Needed to Enhance Communication and Utilization of Resources in the Division of Enforcement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bagley CR. Pint-sized spectacles: American youth beauty queens and the power(ful) dynamic of the institutionalized pageant. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Bray C. London Bank’s U.S. Bargain Is Imperiled by New Claims. New York Times. September 28, 2016:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurvey of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationSurv. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0039-6257
ISSN (online)1879-3304
ScopeOphthalmology

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