How to format your references using the Dermatology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dermatology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smil V. Laying down the law. Nature. 2000;403:597.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wang Z, Zhao Y. MATERIALS SCIENCE: High-Pressure Microscopy. Science. 2006;312:1149–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Coultas L, Chawengsaksophak K, Rossant J. Endothelial cells and VEGF in vascular development. Nature. 2005;438:937–45.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bellott DW, Skaletsky H, Pyntikova T, Mardis ER, Graves T, Kremitzki C, et al. Convergent evolution of chicken Z and human X chromosomes by expansion and gene acquisition. Nature. 2010;466:612–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lawless HT. Quantitative Sensory Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
1. Aguilar LT. Self-Oscillations in Dynamic Systems: A New Methodology via Two-Relay Controllers. 1st ed. 2015. Boiko I, Fridman L, Iriarte R, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Monakhova EV. Phenotypic and Molecular Characteristics of Epidemic and Non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated in Russia and Certain Countries of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In: Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, editors. Epidemiological and Molecular Aspects on Cholera. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 51–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dermatology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Hope: The First Arab Space Probe Planned To Go To Mars [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DOD Systems Modernization: Planned Investment in the Naval Tactical Command Support System Needs to be Reassessed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Dec. Report No.: GAO-06-215.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Heitz SL. A Mindfulness Approach to Help Teachers And Staff Provide Support to High School Students: A Self-Instructional Curriculum [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. C. J. CHIVERS; Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting from Moscow for this article. Local Rebels Said to Join in Chechen Group’s Raids Across Border. New York Times. 2004 Jun 24;A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDermatology and Therapy
AbbreviationDermatol. Ther. (Heidelb.)
ISSN (print)2193-8210
ISSN (online)2190-9172

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