How to format your references using the Dermatology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dermatology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ehrsson HH. The experimental induction of out-of-body experiences. Science. 2007;317:1048.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Santos ME, Salzburger W. Evolution. How cichlids diversify. Science. 2012;338:619–21.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Strick TR, Croquette V, Bensimon D. Single-molecule analysis of DNA uncoiling by a type II topoisomerase. Nature. 2000;404:901–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wiens DA, Anandakrishnan S, Winberry JP, King MA. Simultaneous teleseismic and geodetic observations of the stick-slip motion of an Antarctic ice stream. Nature. 2008;453:770–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Smirnov BM. Fundamentals of Ionized Gases. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
1. Noguera P, Pierce J, Ahram R, editors. Race, Equity, and Education: Sixty Years from Brown. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fournais S, Helffer B. Constant Field Models in Dimension 2: Noncompact Case. In: Helffer B, editor. Spectral Methods in Surface Superconductivity. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2009. p. 45–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dermatology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Wildlife Photographer Of The Year 2016 Captures The Jaw-Dropping Awesomeness Of The Natural World [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. President’s Fifth Special Message for FY 1983. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Mar. Report No.: OGC-83-7.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wead MO. Fear and Doubt [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. A Different Way of Taking Off at J.F.K. New York Times. 2013 Apr 15;D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDermatology and Therapy
AbbreviationDermatol. Ther. (Heidelb.)
ISSN (print)2193-8210
ISSN (online)2190-9172

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