How to format your references using the Designs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Designs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rosset, P. Preventing Hunger: Change Economic Policy. Nature 2011, 479, 472–473.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosch, J.; Caparon, M. A Microdomain for Protein Secretion in Gram-Positive Bacteria. Science 2004, 304, 1513–1515.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zahidi, E.M.; Oudghiri-Hassani, H.; McBreen, P.H. Formation of Thermally Stable Alkylidene Layers on a Catalytically Active Surface. Nature 2001, 409, 1023–1026.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Klose, R.J.; Yamane, K.; Bae, Y.; Zhang, D.; Erdjument-Bromage, H.; Tempst, P.; Wong, J.; Zhang, Y. The Transcriptional Repressor JHDM3A Demethylates Trimethyl Histone H3 Lysine 9 and Lysine 36. Nature 2006, 442, 312–316.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rodman, G.B. Why Cultural Studies?; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118941850.
An edited book
Synaptic Plasticity in Pain; Malcangio, M., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2009; ISBN 9781441902252.
A chapter in an edited book
Eberhardt, U.; Rulhoff, S.; Stjepandic, J. Integration of Time Management in the Digital Factory. In New World Situation: New Directions in Concurrent Engineering: Proceedings of the 17th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering; Pokojski, J., Fukuda, S., Salwiński, J., Eds.; Advanced Concurrent Engineering; Springer: London, 2010; pp. 33–41 ISBN 9780857290236.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Designs.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Growing Use Of Smart Drugs By Students Could Be A Recipe For Disaster Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Education Authority To Charge Student Financial Aid Application Fees; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cornelius, D.A. The Value of Scrum to Organizations: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Wozniacki and Yale Are Cheering Each Other On. New York Times 2010, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDesigns
ISSN (online)2411-9660

Other styles