How to format your references using the Designs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Designs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laughlin, R.B. Physics. The Cup of the Hand. Science 2004, 303, 1475–1477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Megens, M.; Aizenberg, J. Capillary Attraction: Like-Charged Particles at Liquid Interfaces. Nature 2003, 424, 1014; discussion 1014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, S.; Ubel, P.; De Vries, R. Pruning the Regulatory Tree. Nature 2009, 457, 534–535.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, W.G.; Pearse, A.; Li, M.; Hageman, S.; Chen, A.X.; Zhu, F.Q.; Chien, C.L. Parallel Fabrication of Magnetic Tunnel Junction Nanopillars by Nanosphere Lithography. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1948.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyshevski, S.E. Engineering and Scientific Computations Using MATLAB®; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471723868.
An edited book
Koch, W.F.R.M. Early Development of the Human Pelvic Diaphragm; Marani, E., Ed.; Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 192; ISBN 9783540680062.
A chapter in an edited book
Schaafsma, G.C.P.; Vihinen, M. Genetic Variation in Bruton Tyrosine Kinase. In Agammaglobulinemia; Plebani, A., Lougaris, V., Eds.; Rare Diseases of the Immune System; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 75–85 ISBN 9783319227139.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Designs.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Global Population Predicted To Reach 11 Billion By 2100 Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: FCC Procedures Delay Release of Decision Documents; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robertson, M. Respite Efficacy for Parents of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: An Ethnographic Perspective. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Witz, B.; Wagner, J. Shortening of Games Re-Enters G.M. Talks. New York Times 2016, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDesigns
ISSN (online)2411-9660

Other styles