How to format your references using the Designs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Designs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garwin, L. Schrödinger’s mousetrap. Part 4. Nature 2005, 433, 579.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abrahamsen, H.; Stenmark, H. Cell biology. Growth signaling from inside. Science 2011, 334, 611–612.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, S.-H.; Kwan, A.C.; Dan, Y. Interneuron subtypes and orientation tuning. Nature 2014, 508, E1-2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
GrandPré, T.; Nakamura, F.; Vartanian, T.; Strittmatter, S.M. Identification of the Nogo inhibitor of axon regeneration as a Reticulon protein. Nature 2000, 403, 439–444.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Homès, B. Fundamentals of Software Testing; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118602270.
An edited book
Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging; Zaidi, H., Ed.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006; ISBN 9780387238548.
A chapter in an edited book
Byun, J.S. (jason); Kwak, Y. The Scanner Data Shows Size Elasticity at Package Food Category? In U- and E-Service, Science and Technology: International Conference, UNESST 2009, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2009, Jeju Island, Korea, December 10-12, 2009. Proceedings; Ślęzak, D., Kim, T.-H., Ma, J., Fang, W.-C., Sandnes, F.E., Kang, B.-H., Gu, B., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 19–24 ISBN 9783642105791.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Designs.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. You Are Living Inside A Massive, Musical Instrument – And Here’s What It Sounds Like Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Postsecondary Education: College and University Endowments Have Shown Long-Term Growth, While Size, Restrictions, and Distributions Vary; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klooster, E.C.-R. Identifying differences in student traditionalities of remedial math students, adjusted for efficacy. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, T. In an Uber World, Fortune Favors the Freelancer. New York Times 2015, BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDesigns
ISSN (online)2411-9660

Other styles