How to format your references using the Designs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Designs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patek, S.N. Spiny lobsters stick and slip to make sound. Nature 2001, 411, 153–154.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vabulas, R.M.; Hartl, F.U. Protein synthesis upon acute nutrient restriction relies on proteasome function. Science 2005, 310, 1960–1963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tria, F.; Pompei, S.; Loreto, V. Dynamically correlated mutations drive human Influenza A evolution. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2705.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Skotheim, J.M.; Di Talia, S.; Siggia, E.D.; Cross, F.R. Positive feedback of G1 cyclins ensures coherent cell cycle entry. Nature 2008, 454, 291–296.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sauter, M. 3G, 4G and Beyond-Bringing Networks, Devices and the Web Together; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118394540.
An edited book
Popescu-Zeletin, R. Vehicular-2-X Communication: State-of-the-Art and Research in Mobile Vehicular Ad hoc Networks; Radusch, I., Rigani, M.A., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; ISBN 9783540771425.
A chapter in an edited book
Erverdi, N.; Motro, M. Distraction with Custom-Made Appliances on a Straight Vector. In Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis: ArchWise Appliance and Technique; Motro, M., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 47–61 ISBN 9783319077062.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Designs.

Blog post
Fang, J. There Are Only Five Northern White Rhinos Left In The World Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Relocation of Space Shuttle Major Modification Work; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilkes, D.M. Multiple modes of Mdmx regulation affect p53 activation. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida: Tampa, FL, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. Creatures Great, Small and Imagined. New York Times 2014, CT9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDesigns
ISSN (online)2411-9660

Other styles