How to format your references using the Surgical Endoscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Endoscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lisse C (2015) PLANETARY SCIENCE. Comet Siding Spring, up close and personal. Science 350:277–278
A journal article with 2 authors
Azam F, Worden AZ (2004) Oceanography. Microbes, molecules, and marine ecosystems. Science 303:1622–1624
A journal article with 3 authors
Inoue M, Tanimoto M, Oda Y (2013) The role of ear stone size in hair cell acoustic sensory transduction. Sci Rep 3:2114
A journal article with 4 or more authors
von Mering C, Hugenholtz P, Raes J, Tringe SG, Doerks T, Jensen LJ, Ward N, Bork P (2007) Quantitative phylogenetic assessment of microbial communities in diverse environments. Science 315:1126–1130

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu W, Pecht M (2005) IC Component Sockets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bertino E, Matei SA (2015) Roles, Trust, and Reputation in Social Media Knowledge Markets: Theory and Methods. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Ronit K (2014) Global Business Associations, Self-Regulation and Consumer Policy. In: Lang A, Murphy H (eds) Business and Sustainability: Between Government Pressure and Self-Regulation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 61–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Endoscopy.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Time To Tap In To An Underused Energy Source: Wasted Heat. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Meeting the Government’s Technology Challenge: Results of a GAO Symposium. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poyaoan-Linzaga MR (2014) The effects of patient communication in early intervention for falls among the Medicare patients. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2012) New Pension Rules Seek Disclosure. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Endoscopy
AbbreviationSurg. Endosc.
ISSN (print)0930-2794
ISSN (online)1432-2218

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