How to format your references using the Learning and Instruction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning and Instruction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hamilton, W. B. (2007). Comment on “A vestige of Earth’s oldest ophiolite.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5851), 746; author reply 746.
A journal article with 2 authors
Papke, R. T., & Gogarten, J. P. (2012). Ecology. How bacterial lineages emerge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6077), 45–46.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wallace, K., Hardy, G., & Serabyn, E. (2000). Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars. Nature, 406(6797), 700–702.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Baur, J. A., Zou, Y., Shay, J. W., & Wright, W. E. (2001). Telomere position effect in human cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5524), 2075–2077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, T. (2013). Constantine. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Tilkemeier, P. L., Hendel, R. C., Heller, G. V., & Case, J. A. (Eds.). (2016). Quality Evaluation in Non-Invasive Cardiovascular Imaging. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Canelas, A. M. L., Neves, R. F. M. F., & Horta, N. C. G. (2013). Conclusions and Future Work. In R. F. M. F. Neves & N. C. G. Horta (Eds.), Investment Strategies Optimization based on a SAX-GA Methodology (pp. 79–81). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning and Instruction.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, August 23). Parasitic Fungus Infects Cells By Fusing Them Together For Easier Travel. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). DOD Aviator Positions: Training Requirements and Incentive Pay Could Be Reduced (NSIAD-97-60). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sokoya, K. (2014). A Historical Analysis of the Contributions of the Black Power Movement to Higher Education: 1960 – 1980 [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by RACHEL LEE HARRIS. (2010, July 19). Pilgrim, The Final Volume. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hamilton, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hamilton, 2007; Papke & Gogarten, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Papke & Gogarten, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Wallace et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Baur et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning and Instruction
AbbreviationLearn. Instr.
ISSN (print)0959-4752
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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