How to format your references using the Surgical Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Clinics of North America (SUC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis SL. How to beat the media in the climate street fight. Nature 2010;468(7320):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell E, Salathé M. Complex social contagion makes networks more vulnerable to disease outbreaks. Sci Rep 2013;3:1905.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cusick RD, Kim Y, Logan BE. Energy capture from thermolytic solutions in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells. Science 2012;335(6075):1474–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bayne EH, Portoso M, Kagansky A, et al. Splicing factors facilitate RNAi-directed silencing in fission yeast. Science 2008;322(5901):602–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raymond SU. Recession, Recovery, and Renewal: Long-Term Nonprofit Strategies for Rapid Economic Change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Correia F, Iacona A, editors. Around the Tree: Semantic and Metaphysical Issues Concerning Branching and the Open Future. vol. 361. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Anderson R, Cervo D. XBees. In: Cervo D, editor. Pro Arduino. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013. pp. 91–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Alignment Of Planets May Explain Sun’s Mysterious Cycle. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reports Issued in July 1988. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lam NN. The effect of racial disparities and adult supervision in Human Papillomavirus knowledge among female adolescents. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Delury J. Making a North Korea deal. New York Times 2017:0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Clinics of North America
AbbreviationSurg. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0039-6109
ISSN (online)1558-3171

Other styles