How to format your references using the Surgical Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Clinics of North America (SUC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Govindan R. Cancer. Attack of the clones. Science 2014;346(6206):169–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Todd JJ, Marois R. Capacity limit of visual short-term memory in human posterior parietal cortex. Nature 2004;428(6984):751–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Huang S, Bai M, Wang L. General and facile surface functionalization of hydrophobic nanocrystals with poly(amino acid) for cell luminescence imaging. Sci Rep 2013;3:2023.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Boorum MM, Vasil’ev YV, Drewello T, et al. Groundwork for a rational synthesis of C60: cyclodehydrogenation of a C60H30 polyarene. Science 2001;294(5543):828–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Horton I. Ivor Horton’s Beginning Visual C++® 2012. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1
Nicassio PM, editor. Psychosocial Factors in Arthritis: Perspectives on Adjustment and Management. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Krannich RS, Luloff AE, Field DR. “Old West” and “New West”: A Regional Perspective. In: Luloff AE, and Field DR, editors. People, Places and Landscapes: Social Change in High Amenity Rural Areas. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. pp. 45–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Clinics of North America.

Blog post
1
Fang J. Kangaroos Have Five Legs. IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/kangaroos-have-five-legs/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Workforce: Current and Future Availability of Airline Pilots. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Yu B. Periodic Motions and Bifurcation Tree in a Periodically Excited Oscillator with Quadratic Nonlinearity. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Kaplan T, Shear MD. As Conservatives Grouse, House Passes Disaster Aid and Debt Limit Package. New York Times 2017:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Clinics of North America
AbbreviationSurg. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0039-6109
ISSN (online)1558-3171
ScopeSurgery

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