How to format your references using the Surgical Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Clinics of North America (SUC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Worm B. ECOLOGY. A most unusual (super)predator. Science 2015;349(6250):784–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Pak DTS, Sheng M. Targeted protein degradation and synapse remodeling by an inducible protein kinase. Science 2003;302(5649):1368–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Mitchell RN, Kilian TM, Evans DAD. Supercontinent cycles and the calculation of absolute palaeolongitude in deep time. Nature 2012;482(7384):208–11.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Papadakis G, Tsortos A, Kordas A, et al. Acoustic detection of DNA conformation in genetic assays combined with PCR. Sci Rep 2013;3:2033.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Durbin PA, Reif BAP. Statistical Theory and Modeling for Turbulent Flows. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1
Ferreira JJM, Raposo M, Rutten R, et al., editors. Cooperation, Clusters, and Knowledge Transfer: Universities and Firms Towards Regional Competitiveness. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Thulstrup AW, Casse T, Nielsen TT. The Push for Plantations: Drivers, Rationales and Social Vulnerability in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam. In: Bruun O, and Casse T, editors. On the Frontiers of Climate and Environmental Change: Vulnerabilities and Adaptations in Central Vietnam. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. pp. 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Clinics of North America.

Blog post
1
Hamilton K. Dog Wearing GoPro Is Attacked By Wolves. IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/dog-wearing-gopro-captures-wolves-attacking-it/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. GAO Lead Division Plan for Automatic Data Processing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
O’Leary JJ. Telling the story: Teaching leaders the art of storytelling and its impact on individuals and the organization. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Shear MD. Ask Him Anything, Unless It’s About Trump. New York Times 2017:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Clinics of North America
AbbreviationSurg. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0039-6109
ISSN (online)1558-3171
ScopeSurgery

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