How to format your references using the Neurosurgical Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurosurgical Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sihvola A (2014) Physics. Enabling optical analog computing with metamaterials. Science 343:144–145
A journal article with 2 authors
Szathmáry E, Hammerstein P (2004) Obituary: John Maynard Smith (1920-2004). Nature 429:258–259
A journal article with 3 authors
van Polanen V, Bergmann Tiest WM, Kappers AML (2014) Target contact and exploration strategies in haptic search. Sci Rep 4:6254
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith CA, Roeszler KN, Ohnesorg T, Cummins DM, Farlie PG, Doran TJ, Sinclair AH (2009) The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken. Nature 461:267–271

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hallberg MC (2008) Economic Trends in U.S. Agriculture and Food Systems Since World War II. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA
An edited book
Sun J, Liu J, Fan S, Lu X (2015) China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2015 Proceedings: Volume II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kłyk Ł, Myszkowski PB, Broda B, Piasecki M, Urbansky D (2012) Metaheuristics for Tuning Model Parameters in Two Natural Language Processing Applications. In: Ramsay A, Agre G (eds) Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications: 15th International Conference, AIMSA 2012, Varna, Bulgaria, September 12-15, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 32–37

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurosurgical Review.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) NASA Has Mapped The Fragmented Underbelly Of The Greenland Ice Sheet. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Federal Research: Small Business Innovation Research Program Shows Success But Can Be Strengthened. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhavsar KS (2017) Application of wavelet on quasi-periodic physiologic signals. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Couturier K (2017) The Nine and a Half Months That Shook Fox News. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [4, 5, 7, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurosurgical Review
AbbreviationNeurosurg. Rev.
ISSN (print)0344-5607
ISSN (online)1437-2320
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles