How to format your references using the Neurosurgical Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurosurgical Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joughin I (2006) Climate change. Greenland rumbles louder as glaciers accelerate. Science 311:1719–1720
A journal article with 2 authors
Martinez LM, Angell CA (2001) A thermodynamic connection to the fragility of glass-forming liquids. Nature 410:663–667
A journal article with 3 authors
Franke KJ, Schulze G, Pascual JI (2011) Competition of superconducting phenomena and Kondo screening at the nanoscale. Science 332:940–944
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen Y, Yang L, Ren F, An K (2014) Visualizing the structural evolution of LSM/xYSZ composite cathodes for SOFC by in-situ neutron diffraction. Sci Rep 4:5179

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGee G (2012) Bioethics for beginners. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Luna-Elizarrarás ME (2015) Bicomplex Holomorphic Functions: The Algebra, Geometry and Analysis of Bicomplex Numbers. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Lv C, Qiang R, Fan F, Yang J (2015) Knowledge-Based Query Expansion in Real-Time Microblog Search. In: Zuccon G, Geva S, Joho H, Scholer F, Sun A, Zhang P (eds) Information Retrieval Technology: 11th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2015, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, December 2-4, 2015. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 43–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurosurgical Review.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Modafinil – The ‘Smart Drug’ Leading The Charge Towards A Future Of Neuroenhancement. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Issues Related to FAA’s Modernization of the Air Traffic Control System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook AE (2010) Gas hydrate-filled fracture reservoirs on continental margins. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S (1996) Children’s Books;The Wonderful World of Dahl. New York Times 733

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurosurgical Review
AbbreviationNeurosurg. Rev.
ISSN (print)0344-5607
ISSN (online)1437-2320
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles