How to format your references using the Surgical Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chyba CF. Energy for microbial life on Europa. Nature. 2000;403:381–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Medina-Elizalde M, Lea DW. The mid-Pleistocene transition in the tropical Pacific. Science. 2005;310:1009–12.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Malakoff D, Yeston J, Smith J. Getting better to get bigger. Science. 2010;329:779.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sharma S, tenOever BR, Grandvaux N, Zhou G-P, Lin R, Hiscott J. Triggering the interferon antiviral response through an IKK-related pathway. Science. 2003;300:1148–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bachmann H, Steinle A. Precast Concrete Structures. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG; 2012.
An edited book
1. Pradhan B, Pinninti N, Rathod S, editors. Brief Interventions for Psychosis: A Clinical Compendium. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Andresen M, Bodine G, Concannon C, Korhammer R, LaBranche M, Redfearn B. Electronic Trading. In: Schwartz RA, Byrne JA, Colaninno A, editors. Electronic vs Floor Based Trading. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. p. 67–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Case Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Flatworm Reproduces by Using its Penis to Inject Sperm Into its Head [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/flatworm-reproduces-using-its-penis-inject-sperm-its-head/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Agencies Could Save Time and Money With Better Computer Software Alternatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 May. Report No.: AFMD-83-29.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Liang Y. Studies of E. coli YidC and Other Factors for Membrane Protein Insertion [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Top Sprinters Test Positive, Jolting Track World. New York Times. 2013 Jul 15;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Case Reports
AbbreviationSurg. Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2198-7793
Scope

Other styles