How to format your references using the Surgical Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hare T. Neuroscience. Exploiting and exploring the options. Science. 2014;344:1446–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kuper R, Kröpelin S. Climate-controlled Holocene occupation in the Sahara: motor of Africa’s evolution. Science. 2006;313:803–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pinker RT, Zhang B, Dutton EG. Do satellites detect trends in surface solar radiation? Science. 2005;308:850–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Shindell DT, Schmidt GA, Mann ME, Rind D, Waple A. Solar forcing of regional climate change during the Maunder Minimum. Science. 2001;294:2149–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dimitriadis G. Introduction to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Volkmar FR, Reichow B, McPartland JC, editors. Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Oka Y, Koshizuka S, Ishiwatari Y, Yamaji A. Plant Dynamics and Control. In: Koshizuka S, Ishiwatari Y, Yamaji A, editors. Super Light Water Reactors and Super Fast Reactors: Supercritical-Pressure Light Water Cooled Reactors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 241–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Case Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Cassini Probes Lakes On Titan. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Query Concerning Legality of Transfer of Japan-United States Friendship Commission Funds]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Jan. Report No.: B-217093.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lim K. An Inquiry of How Art Education Policies are Reflected in Art Teacher Preparation: Examining the Standards for Visual Arts and Art Teacher Certification [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barron J. Donald Trump Hits the Town. New York Times. 2016 Nov 19;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Case Reports
AbbreviationSurg. Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2198-7793
Scope

Other styles