How to format your references using the Surgical Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pleasants S. Epidemiology: a moving target. Nature. 2014;515:S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Abercrombie RE, Ekström G. Earthquake slip on oceanic transform faults. Nature. 2001;410:74–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bryant P, Nunes T, Snaith R. Children learn an untaught rule of spelling. Nature. 2000;403:157–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kolodkin-Gal I, Hazan R, Gaathon A, Carmeli S, Engelberg-Kulka H. A linear pentapeptide is a quorum-sensing factor required for mazEF-mediated cell death in Escherichia coli. Science. 2007;318:652–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rubin AB. Fundamentals of Biophysics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Adams VR, Burke TG, editors. Camptothecins in Cancer Therapy. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fraga-Silva RA, Stergiopulos N. The Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Erectile Dysfunction: Present and Future. In: Viigimaa M, Vlachopoulos C, Doumas M, editors. Erectile Dysfunction in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease: A Guide for Clinicians. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 39–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Case Reports.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Boulder Leaves Dotted Line Trail On Mars. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Energy Research and Development Administration’s Accounting System for Accounts Receivable. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Jun. Report No.: FGMSD-77-25.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ren W. The Portrayal of Risk-taking Behaviors in Traffic on the Prime-time Television Series [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Middle East: Qatar: Death Sought For Russians. New York Times. 2004 Jun 9;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Case Reports
AbbreviationSurg. Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2198-7793
Scope

Other styles