How to format your references using the International Journal of Legal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Legal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Schmidt B (2014) Perspective: if not funding then teaching. Nature 511:S81
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Stoeckle MY, Coffran C (2013) TreeParser-aided Klee diagrams display taxonomic clusters in DNA barcode and nuclear gene datasets. Sci Rep 3:2635
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Thürmer K, Williams E, Reutt-Robey J (2002) Autocatalytic oxidation of lead crystallite surfaces. Science 297:2033–2035
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Zappacosta DC, Ochogavía AC, Rodrigo JM, et al (2014) Increased apomixis expression concurrent with genetic and epigenetic variation in a newly synthesized Eragrostis curvula polyploid. Sci Rep 4:4423

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Young S, Bramham J (2012) Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for ADHD in Adolescents and Adults. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
1.
Priami C, Breitling R, Gilbert D, et al (2010) Transactions on Computational Systems Biology XII: Special Issue on Modeling Methodologies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hutson JM, Beasley SW (2013) Abnormalities of the Penis. In: Beasley SW (ed) The Surgical Examination of Children. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 63–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Legal Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Hale T (2017) Two-Thirds Of Germany Was Powered By Renewable Energy On Easter Sunday. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1977) Report to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare on Fundamental Improvements Needed for Timely Promulgation of Health Program Regulations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Martinez C (2010) An after-school program at the middle school level for at-risk youth. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Gustines GG (2017) Comics Put the Pow In Power. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Legal Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Legal Med.
ISSN (print)0937-9827
ISSN (online)1437-1596
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles