How to format your references using the International Journal of Legal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Legal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cock M (2010) Biopiracy rules should not block biological control. Nature 467:369
A journal article with 2 authors
Coulson T, Clegg S (2014) Population biology: fur seals signal their own decline. Nature 511:414–415
A journal article with 3 authors
Wojtak R, Hansen SH, Hjorth J (2011) Gravitational redshift of galaxies in clusters as predicted by general relativity. Nature 477:567–569
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fujita Y, Furushima R, Ohno H, et al (2014) Cell-surface receptor control that depends on the size of a synthetic equilateral-triangular RNA-protein complex. Sci Rep 4:6422

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nazarov VE, Radostin AV (2014) Nonlinear Acoustic Waves in Micro-inhomogeneous Solids. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Serpe MJ, Kang Y, Zhang QM (2016) Photonic Materials for Sensing, Biosensing and Display Devices, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Nguyen V-T, Vu H, Tran T-H (2015) An Efficient Combination of RGB and Depth for Background Subtraction. In: Dang QA, Nguyen XH, Le HB, et al (eds) Some Current Advanced Researches on Information and Computer Science in Vietnam: Post-proceedings of The First NAFOSTED Conference on Information and Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 49–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Legal Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2017) Naracoorte, Where Half A Million Years Of Biodiversity And Climate History Are Trapped In Caves. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Highlights of a Forum: Data and Analytics Innovation: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brady DC (2008) The transforming Rho family GTPase, Wrch -1, regulates epithelial cell morphogenesis through modulating cell junctions and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B (2015) Squabbling, Hesitation and Luck Had Roles in Capture. New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Legal Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Legal Med.
ISSN (print)0937-9827
ISSN (online)1437-1596
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles