How to format your references using the International Journal of Legal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Legal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bevan M (2003) Plant science. Surprises inside a green grass genome. Science 300:1514–1515
A journal article with 2 authors
Peck JR, Waxman D (2000) Mutation and sex in a competitive world. Nature 406:399–404
A journal article with 3 authors
Sellman BR, Mourez M, Collier RJ (2001) Dominant-negative mutants of a toxin subunit: an approach to therapy of anthrax. Science 292:695–697
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen J, Zhao D, Li C, et al (2014) All solution-processed stable white quantum dot light-emitting diodes with hybrid ZnO@TiO₂ as blue emitters. Sci Rep 4:4085

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meinert CL (2012) Clinical Trials Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Harteis C, Rausch A, Seifried J (2014) Discourses on Professional Learning: On the Boundary Between Learning and Working. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Selvan ST, Narayanan K (2016) Magnetic Nanoparticles. In: Narayanan K (ed) Introduction to Nanotheranostics. Springer, Singapore, pp 31–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Legal Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) Have We Really Discovered A Huge Alien Megastructure Around A Star? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Denver International Airport: Baggage Handling, Contracting, and Other Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson S (2014) Individual sense of efficacy, collective teacher efficacy and student achievement in high achieving and low achieving urban public schools. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Turkewitz J (2014) Language Barrier Continues to Thwart Victims of Crimes. New York Times A14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Legal Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Legal Med.
ISSN (print)0937-9827
ISSN (online)1437-1596
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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