How to format your references using the International Journal of Legal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Legal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aguzzi A (2005) Cell biology. Prion toxicity: all sail and no anchor. Science 308:1420–1421
A journal article with 2 authors
Ciufolini I, Pavlis EC (2004) A confirmation of the general relativistic prediction of the Lense-Thirring effect. Nature 431:958–960
A journal article with 3 authors
Schröter C, Kosma K, Schultz T (2011) CRASY: mass- or electron-correlated rotational alignment spectroscopy. Science 333:1011–1015
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hester JJ, Desch SJ, Healy KR, Leshin LA (2004) Astronomy. The cradle of the solar system. Science 304:1116–1117

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weisberg HI (2014) Willful Ignorance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ghadiri A (2012) Neuroleadership: A Journey Through the Brain for Business Leaders. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Llamas J, Lerones PM, Zalama E, Gómez-García-Bermejo J (2016) Applying Deep Learning Techniques to Cultural Heritage Images Within the INCEPTION Project. In: Ioannides M, Fink E, Moropoulou A, et al (eds) Digital Heritage. Progress in Cultural Heritage: Documentation, Preservation, and Protection: 6th International Conference, EuroMed 2016, Nicosia, Cyprus, October 31 – November 5, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 25–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Legal Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Beware The Bad Big Wolf: Why You Need To Put Your Adjectives In The Right Order. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Critical Infrastructure Protection: Comprehensive Strategy Can Draw on Year 2000 Experiences. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor WA (2010) Every citizen a soldier: The U.S. Army’s campaign for universal military training following World War II. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2016) Reyes Raises His Game, and His Team’s Spirits. New York Times D7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Legal Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Legal Med.
ISSN (print)0937-9827
ISSN (online)1437-1596
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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