How to format your references using the Diversity and Distributions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diversity and Distributions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ridley, R. G. (2002). Medical need, scientific opportunity and the drive for antimalarial drugs. Nature, 415(6872), 686–693.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rossant, J., & Hogan, B. (2007). Retrospective. Anne McLaren (1927-2007). Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5838), 609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, J., Gong, P., & Zhou, X. (2014). The association between romantic relationship status and 5-HT1A gene in young adults. Scientific Reports, 4, 7049.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chugunov, A., Pyrkova, D., Nolde, D., Polyansky, A., Pentkovsky, V., & Efremov, R. (2013). Lipid-II forms potential “landing terrain” for lantibiotics in simulated bacterial membrane. Scientific Reports, 3, 1678.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Colin, A. (2005). Fixed Income Attribution. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Sefa Dei, G. J., & McDermott, M. (Eds.). (2014). Politics of Anti-Racism Education: In Search of Strategies for Transformative Learning (Vol. 27). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, L., Porras, A., Benavides, R., Zeballos, D. G., & Arevalo, J. F. (2009). Angiography of Retinal Vascular Diseases. In J. F. Arevalo (Ed.), Retinal Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography (pp. 105–132). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diversity and Distributions.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, September 20). 2,000-Year-Old Human Skeleton Found On Antikythera Shipwreck. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). ADP Contracts: Army Needs to Correct Budget Disclosure Deficiencies (IMTEC-89-13). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Osifalujo, A. (2015). Code-switching in Working African Americans: Internalized Racism, Minority Status, and Organizational Commitment [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017, September 22). National Opera Names General Director. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ridley, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ridley, 2002; Rossant & Hogan, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rossant & Hogan, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Liu et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chugunov et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiversity and Distributions
AbbreviationDivers. Distrib.
ISSN (print)1366-9516
ISSN (online)1472-4642
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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