How to format your references using the Diversity and Distributions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diversity and Distributions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Running, S. W. (2006). Climate change. Is global warming causing more, larger wildfires? Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5789), 927–928.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blázquez, M. A., & Weigel, D. (2000). Integration of floral inductive signals in Arabidopsis. Nature, 404(6780), 889–892.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kinney, M. A., Saeed, R., & McDevitt, T. C. (2014). Mesenchymal morphogenesis of embryonic stem cells dynamically modulates the biophysical microtissue niche. Scientific Reports, 4, 4290.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Allada, R. K., Navrotsky, A., Berbeco, H. T., & Casey, W. H. (2002). Thermochemistry and aqueous solubilities of hydrotalcite-like solids. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5568), 721–723.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allin, P., & Hand, D. J. (2014). The Wellbeing of Nations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Essig, M., Hülsmann, M., Kern, E.-M., & Klein-Schmeink, S. (Eds.). (2013). Supply Chain Safety Management: Security and Robustness in Logistics. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Monakhova, E. V. (2011). Phenotypic and Molecular Characteristics of Epidemic and Non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated in Russia and Certain Countries of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In T. Ramamurthy & S. K. Bhattacharya (Eds.), Epidemiological and Molecular Aspects on Cholera (pp. 51–78). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diversity and Distributions.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 9). Five Things I Learned When My Research Went Viral. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). In-Flight Escape Systems for Helicopters Should Be Developed To Prevent Fatalities (B-177166). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cosma, A. C. (2019). Real-Time Individual Thermal Preferences Prediction Using Visual Sensors [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, October 19). One of Us. New York Times, C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Running, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Blázquez & Weigel, 2000; Running, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blázquez & Weigel, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Kinney et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Allada et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiversity and Distributions
AbbreviationDivers. Distrib.
ISSN (print)1366-9516
ISSN (online)1472-4642
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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