How to format your references using the Diversity and Distributions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diversity and Distributions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kummel, A. C. (2003). Chemistry. How to assemble a molecular junction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5642), 69–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nimmo, F., & Pappalardo, R. T. (2006). Diapir-induced reorientation of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. Nature, 441(7093), 614–616.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ito, T., Woloszyn, M., & Mazloff, M. (2010). Anthropogenic carbon dioxide transport in the Southern Ocean driven by Ekman flow. Nature, 463(7277), 80–83.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
O’Connor, J. M., Stoffers, P., Wijbrans, J. R., Shannon, P. M., & Morrissey, T. (2000). Evidence from episodic seamount volcanism for pulsing of the Iceland plume in the past 70 Myr. Nature, 408(6815), 954–958.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pavlović, T., Alvarez, I., Blanco-Cano, R., Grisales, A., Osorio, A., & Sánchez, A. (2008). 100 Years of Spanish Cinema. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Imani, J. (2009). Plant Cell and Tissue Culture - A Tool in Biotechnology: Basics and Application. (A. Kumar & K.-H. Neumann, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Silva, R., Mota, A., & Starr, R. R. (2014). Formal MDE-Based Tool Development. In T. Bouabana-Tebibel & S. H. Rubin (Eds.), Integration of Reusable Systems (pp. 105–125). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diversity and Distributions.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, May 15). Can Geoengineering Save The Coral Reefs? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center: Clarifying Rationale for the Research and Development Funding Decisions Would Increase Accountability (No. GAO-09-339R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leesombatpiboon, P. (2010). Thailand’s energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik, J. F. (2017, January 13). How to Get Financial Advice in Your Best Interest. New York Times, p. BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kummel, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kummel, 2003; Nimmo & Pappalardo, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nimmo & Pappalardo, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Ito, Woloszyn, & Mazloff, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (O’Connor, Stoffers, Wijbrans, Shannon, & Morrissey, 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiversity and Distributions
AbbreviationDivers. Distrib.
ISSN (print)1366-9516
ISSN (online)1472-4642
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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