How to format your references using the Diversity and Distributions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diversity and Distributions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Atran, S. (2003). Genesis of suicide terrorism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5612), 1534–1539.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bezdek, R., & Wendling, R. (2005). Recruiters and industry. Job creation and environmental protection. Nature, 434(7033), 678.
A journal article with 3 authors
Swan, A., Cockerill, M., & Sipp, D. (2013). Advocacy: How to hasten open access. Nature, 495(7442), 442–443.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yu, J. L., Rak, J. W., Coomber, B. L., Hicklin, D. J., & Kerbel, R. S. (2002). Effect of p53 status on tumor response to antiangiogenic therapy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5559), 1526–1528.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schumer, P. D. (2005). Mathematical Journeys. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Greuel, G.-M. (2008). A Singular Introduction to Commutative Algebra (G. Pfister, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Holweg, M., & Bicheno, J. (2016). The Reverse Amplification Effect in Supply Chains. In K. S. Pawar, H. Rogers, A. Potter, & M. Naim (Eds.), Developments in Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Past, Present and Future (pp. 52–58). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diversity and Distributions.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, November 16). Mystery Of London’s 1952 Killer Fog Is Solved. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Surface Transportation: Competitive Grant Programs Could Benefit from Increased Performance Focus and Better Documentation of Key Decisions (GAO-11-234). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ghadimian, V. (2017). Renewable Energy Marketplace [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, April 26). Justices Reject Immunity Below State Level. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Atran, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Atran, 2003; Bezdek & Wendling, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bezdek & Wendling, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Swan et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yu et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiversity and Distributions
AbbreviationDivers. Distrib.
ISSN (print)1366-9516
ISSN (online)1472-4642
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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