How to format your references using the Diversity and Distributions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diversity and Distributions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oullier, O. (2013). Behavioural insights are vital to policy-making. Nature, 501(7468), 463.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mirabel, I. F., & Rodrigues, I. (2003). Formation of a black hole in the dark. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5622), 1119–1120.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carr, S., Heard, D. E., & Blitz, M. A. (2009). Comment on “Atmospheric hydroxyl radical production from electronically excited NO2 and H2O.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5925), 336; author reply 336.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yamamoto, K., Dürr, U. H. N., Xu, J., Im, S.-C., Waskell, L., & Ramamoorthy, A. (2013). Dynamic interaction between membrane-bound full-length cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 observed by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Scientific Reports, 3, 2538.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sandou, G. (2013). Metaheuristic Optimization for the Design of Automatic Control Laws. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bergemann, N., & Riecher-Rössler, A. (Eds.). (2005). Estrogen Effects in Psychiatric Disorders. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Alsos, G. A., Clausen, T. H., & Isaksen, E. J. (2016). Innovation Among Public-Sector Organisations: Push and Pull Factors. In J. Leitão & H. Alves (Eds.), Entrepreneurial and Innovative Practices in Public Institutions: A Quality of Life Approach (pp. 81–98). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diversity and Distributions.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, March 7). Scientists Shave Spider’s Moustaches To See If They Help Lure Prey. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Student Financial Aid: Monitoring Aid Greater Than Federally Defined Need Could Help Address Student Loan Indebtedness (GAO-03-508). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milner, M. (2009). An evaluation of the influence of case method instruction on the reflective thinking of MSW students [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017, April 23). Saudi Arabia Restores Salaries and Bonuses Amid Grumbling. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Oullier, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Mirabel & Rodrigues, 2003; Oullier, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mirabel & Rodrigues, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Carr et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yamamoto et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiversity and Distributions
AbbreviationDivers. Distrib.
ISSN (print)1366-9516
ISSN (online)1472-4642
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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