How to format your references using the Surgery Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Heisenberg M. Is free will an illusion? Nature. 2009;459:164–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Read SM, Bacic T. Plant biology. Prime time for cellulose. Science. 2002;295:59–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Li B, Yu Z-H, Fei S-M. Geometry of quantum computation with qutrits. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2594.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Collins PJ, Haire LF, Lin YP, Liu J, Russell RJ, Walker PA, et al. Crystal structures of oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus neuraminidase mutants. Nature. 2008;453:1258–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Silverstein D, Samuel P, Decarlo N. The Innovator’s Toolkit. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Shah VP, Maibach HI, Jenner J, editors. Topical Drug Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, and Penetration. 2nd ed. 2014. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Legnaioli S, Lorenzetti G, Pardini L, Cavalcanti GH, Palleschi V. Double and Multiple Pulse LIBS Techniques. In: Musazzi S, Perini U, editors. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 117–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery Today.

Blog post
1. Evans K. See If You Can Solve These 6 Fiendish Brain-Teasers Written By NSA Employees [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/see-if-you-can-solve-these-6-fiendish-brain-teasers-written-by-nsa-employees/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Business Process Reengineering Assessment Guide--Version 3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Apr. Report No.: AIMD-10.1.15.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Jurka J. The importance of being a complement: CED effects revisited [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hodara S. Art Rooted in Matters of the Heart and the Mind. New York Times. 2015 Apr 26;CT8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery Today
AbbreviationSurg. Today
ISSN (print)0941-1291
ISSN (online)1436-2813
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Surgery

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