How to format your references using the Surgery Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Houllier F. Biotechnology: Bring more rigour to GM research. Nature. 2012;491:327.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lounis B, Moerner WE. Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature. Nature. 2000;407:491–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Martin-Lluesma S, Stucke VM, Nigg EA. Role of Hec1 in spindle checkpoint signaling and kinetochore recruitment of Mad1/Mad2. Science. 2002;297:2267–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ghorbani-Asl M, Zibouche N, Wahiduzzaman M, Oliveira AF, Kuc A, Heine T. Electromechanics in MoS₂ and WS₂: nanotubes vs. monolayers. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2961.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Misra DK. Practical Electromagnetics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Goldberg AV, Zhou Y, editors. Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 5th International Conference, AAIM 2009, San Francisco, CA, USA, June 15-17, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Giordano L, Toni F. Knowledge Representation and Non-monotonic Reasoning. In: Dovier A, Pontelli E, editors. A 25-Year Perspective on Logic Programming: Achievements of the Italian Association for Logic Programming, GULP. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 87–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery Today.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Earth’s Oxygen Levels Continue To Decline. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Issues Raised concerning the Report, “The National School Lunch Program: Is It Working?” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Nov. Report No.: PAD-78-43.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chen G. Essays On Using Weather Derivatives In Dairy Production [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. Lesson One: The Price the Contractor Quotes Is an Estimate. New York Times. 2007 Feb 22;F4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery Today
AbbreviationSurg. Today
ISSN (print)0941-1291
ISSN (online)1436-2813
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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