How to format your references using the Surgery Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schroers J. Condensed-matter physics: Glasses made from pure metals. Nature. 2014;512:142–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jensen LJ, Bork P. Biochemistry. Not comparable, but complementary. Science. 2008;322:56–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Amodeo GA, Rudolph MJ, Tong L. Crystal structure of the heterotrimer core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homologue SNF1. Nature. 2007;449:492–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Edwards J, Whitaker D, Klionsky S, Laskowski MJ. Botany: a record-breaking pollen catapult. Nature. 2005;435:164.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tatham M, Morton K. Developments in Speech Synthesis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Bessière P, Laugier C, Siegwart R, editors. Probabilistic Reasoning and Decision Making in Sensory-Motor Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Saliou G, Théaudin M, Join-Lambert Vincent C, Souillard-Scemama R. Transient Ischaemic Attacks. In: Theaudin M, Join-Lambert Vincent C, Souillard-Scemama R, editors. Practical Guide to Neurovascular Emergencies. Paris: Springer; 2014. p. 77–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery Today.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. California Breaks Record After Getting 81 Percent Of Energy From Renewables. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Internal Control and Financial Management Systems: Major Reform Efforts Are Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Apr. Report No.: T-AFMD-90-14.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Fresolone C. The pedagogical use of Gerald Near’s “Chantworks” [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gustines GG. Out of the Closet and Up, Up and Away. New York Times. 2010 Apr 18;ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery Today
AbbreviationSurg. Today
ISSN (print)0941-1291
ISSN (online)1436-2813
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles