How to format your references using the Surgery Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bull JJ. Evolution: Reptile sex determination goes wild. Nature. 2015;523:43–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Labouriau R, Amorim A. Comment on “An association between the kinship and fertility of human couples.” Science. 2008;322:1634; author reply 1634.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Messer H, Zinevich A, Alpert P. Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks. Science. 2006;312:713.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Solanki K, Grover N, Downs P, Paskaleva EE, Mehta KK, Lee L, et al. Enzyme-based listericidal nanocomposites. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Smith CL. Basic Process Measurements. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Ito K, editor. Regulatory Nascent Polypeptides. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Blankenship J, Bussa M, Millett S. Sprint 1: Starting a Game. In: Bussa M, Millett S, editors. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011. p. 87–133.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery Today.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Italian Supervolcano Could Be Closer To Erupting Than Previously Thought [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. European Aeronautics: Strong Government Presence in Industry Structure and Research and Development Support. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Mar. Report No.: NSIAD-94-71.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wuite J. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Three East Antarctic Outlet Glaciers and Their Floating Ice Tongues [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. Instant Fortunes, and Sudden Headaches. New York Times. 2007 Dec 29;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery Today
AbbreviationSurg. Today
ISSN (print)0941-1291
ISSN (online)1436-2813
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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