How to format your references using the Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Köhling R. Neuroscience. GABA becomes exciting. Science. 2002 Nov 15;298(5597):1350–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Florence TJ, Reiser MB. Neuroscience: hot on the trail of temperature processing. Nature. 2015 Mar 19;519(7543):296–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pandey S, Goswami GK, Nanda KK. Nanocomposite based flexible ultrasensitive resistive gas sensor for chemical reactions studies. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2082.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fedoriw AM, Stein P, Svoboda P, Schultz RM, Bartolomei MS. Transgenic RNAi reveals essential function for CTCF in H19 gene imprinting. Science. 2004 Jan 9;303(5655):238–40.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lovejoy DA. Neuroendocrinology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Lee KH. Business Value and Sustainability: An Integrated Supply Network Perspective. Vachon S, editor. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. XXIII, 308 p. 32 illus., 10 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Różanowski K, Piotrowski Z, Sondej T, Sawicki K, Głowacki M. Wireless Driver and Vehicle Surveillance System Based on IEEE 802.11 Networks. In: Vinel A, Mehmood R, Berbineau M, Garcia CR, Huang CM, Chilamkurti N, editors. Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 4th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains 2012, Vilnius, Lithuania, April 25-27, 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 57–67. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. MH17 Crash Report Establishes The Cause, But Only Criminal Investigation Can Find Those Responsible. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Environmental Protection Agency: Difficulties in Comparing Annual Budgets for Science and Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-99-120.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wurster KW. Management matter? Effects of charcoal production management on woodland regeneration in Senegal [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Southern Barbecue, Up North. New York Times. 2010 Oct 10;NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunity Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
AbbreviationCommunity Dent. Oral Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0301-5661
ISSN (online)1600-0528
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Dentistry

Other styles