How to format your references using the Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gittis A. Eppendorf finalist. Striatal interneurons: causes of or cures for movement disorders? Science. 2012 Oct 5;338(6103):59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Day KP, Fowkes FJI. Microbiology. Quantifying malaria dynamics within the host. Science. 2011 Aug 19;333(6045):943–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee SH, Oe T, Blair IA. Vitamin C-induced decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to endogenous genotoxins. Science. 2001 Jun 15;292(5524):2083–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kirmizis A, Santos-Rosa H, Penkett CJ, Singer MA, Vermeulen M, Mann M, et al. Arginine methylation at histone H3R2 controls deposition of H3K4 trimethylation. Nature. 2007 Oct 18;449(7164):928–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vogel W, Kalb H. Large-Scale Solar Thermal Power. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
Mehdipour P, editor. Epigenetics Territory and Cancer. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. XII, 539 p. 96 illus., 53 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Shavitt Y, Zilberman N. Internet PoP Level Maps. In: Biersack E, Callegari C, Matijasevic M, editors. Data Traffic Monitoring and Analysis: From Measurement, Classification, and Anomaly Detection to Quality of Experience. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 82–103. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016. How Should We Compensate Poor Countries For ‘Loss And Famage’ From Climate Change?


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aircraft Noise: Status and Management of FAA’s West Coast Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 May. Report No.: RCED-89-84.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kotch S. Unduly harsh and unworkably rigid: The death penalty in North Carolina, 1910–1961 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. A Master of Metallurgy. New York Times. 2015 Feb 1;WE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunity Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
AbbreviationCommunity Dent. Oral Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0301-5661
ISSN (online)1600-0528
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Dentistry

Other styles