How to format your references using the Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. California dreaming: San Diego. Nature. 2003 Mar 13;422(6928):240–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Christensen CH, Nørskov JK. Chemistry. Green gold catalysis. Science. 2010 Jan 15;327(5963):278–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen LK, Bjørnholm T, Mouritsen OG. Fluctuations caught in the act. Nature. 2000 Mar 23;404(6776):352.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen S, Yoshita M, Ishikawa A, Mochizuki T, Maruyama S, Akiyama H, et al. Intrinsic radiative lifetime derived via absorption cross section of one-dimensional excitons. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1941.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Myers FR. Get the Job You Want, Even When No One’s Hiring. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Hougaard S. The Relationship Marketer: Rethinking Strategic Relationship Marketing. Second Edition. Bjerre M, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. XIII, 223 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuwert T. Bone Imaging with SPECT-CT. In: Farsad M, Mansi L, editors. Atlas of SPECT-CT. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 105–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Women Can Go The Full Nine Months Without Knowing They’re Pregnant [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Information on the Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program and Consumer Participation in the Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Sep. Report No.: GAO-08-1161T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frederiksen MD. Engaging physicians to support corporate compliance programs: A grounded theory study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain JR. A Turning Point For Plug-In Hybrids. New York Times. 2017 May 4;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunity Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
AbbreviationCommunity Dent. Oral Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0301-5661
ISSN (online)1600-0528
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Dentistry

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