How to format your references using the Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weydt P. Biomedical centre memorial to victims of Nazi research. Nature. 2000 Feb 24;403(6772):816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Entcheva E, Williams JC. Channelrhodopsin2 current during the action potential: “optical AP clamp” and approximation. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 25;4:5838.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahissar E, Sosnik R, Haidarliu S. Transformation from temporal to rate coding in a somatosensory thalamocortical pathway. Nature. 2000 Jul 20;406(6793):302–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kohli P, Harrell CC, Cao Z, Gasparac R, Tan W, Martin CR. DNA-functionalized nanotube membranes with single-base mismatch selectivity. Science. 2004 Aug 13;305(5686):984–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szylar C. Risk Management under UCITS III/IV. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Neiger D. Value-Focused Business Process Engineering : a Systems Approach: with Applications to Human Resource Management. Churilov L, Flitman A, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. XXII, 266 p. 75 illus. (Integrated Series in Information Systems; vol. 19).
A chapter in an edited book
Holmes WH, Rinaman WC. Describing the Distribution of a Quantitative Variable. In: Rinaman WC, editor. Statistical Literacy for Clinical Practitioners. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 87–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Starlight Reveals The Complexity Of Enceladus Jets [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Medicaid Section 1115 Waivers: Flexible Approach to Approving Demonstrations Could Increase Federal Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Nov. Report No.: HEHS-96-44.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Encarnacion M. Does the use of clickers while incorporating small groups discussion increase student learning in the chemistry classroom [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. If ‘Looking for Accuracy,’ C.B.O. Is Fine Place to Start. New York Times. 2017 Mar 9;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunity Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
AbbreviationCommunity Dent. Oral Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0301-5661
ISSN (online)1600-0528
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Dentistry

Other styles