How to format your references using the Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jungmann KP. Particle physics: Matter and antimatter scrutinized. Nature 2015;524:168–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Habibi MK, Lu Y. Crack propagation in bamboo’s hierarchical cellular structure. Sci Rep 2014;4:5598.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wigginton N, Yeston J, Malakoff D. Working with waste. More treasure than trash. Introduction. Science 2012;337:662–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nakatsuka N, Yang K-A, Abendroth JM, Cheung KM, Xu X, Yang H, et al. Aptamer-field-effect transistors overcome Debye length limitations for small-molecule sensing. Science 2018;362:319–24.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitola J III. Software Radio Architecture. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2002.
An edited book
Samelson RM. Lagrangian Transport in Geophysical Jets and Waves: The Dynamical Systems Approach. vol. 31. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Privat M, Warner R. Creating a Data Model. In: Warner R, editor. Pro Core Data for iOS: Data Access and Persistence Engine for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch, Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011, p. 111–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases.

Blog post
Fang J. Kiwi Bird Genome Reveals How They Adapted to Nocturnal Lifestyle. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Corporation for Public Broadcasting’s Oversight of National Public Radio. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maitland J. Differences in Perceived Organizational Justice Based Upon Overall Performance Appraisal Ratings. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. A Russian Museum Feud With Putin in the Middle. New York Times 2013:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
AbbreviationSurg. Obes. Relat. Dis.
ISSN (print)1550-7289

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