How to format your references using the British Medical Bulletin citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for British Medical Bulletin. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brigham L. Marine protection in the Arctic cannot wait. Nature. 2011 Oct 12;478(7368):157.
A journal article with 2 authors
Griffin TM, Kram R. Penguin waddling is not wasteful. Nature. 2000;408(6815):929.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang WL, He HW, Yang ZJ. The angiotensinogen gene polymorphism is associated with heart failure among Asians. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 27;4:4207.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Naureckiene S, Sleat DE, Lackland H, Fensom A, Vanier MT, Wattiaux R, et al. Identification of HE1 as the second gene of Niemann-Pick C disease. Science. 2000 Dec 22;290(5500):2298–301.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pasternak H, Hoch HU, Füg D. Stahltragwerke im Industriebau. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
Kuzmanić I. Reliability and Availability of Quality Control Based on Wavelet Computer Vision. Vujović I, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. VII, 68 p. 11 illus., 5 illus. in color. (SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering).
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang Y, Wen W, Chen Y. Asymmetry in STT-RAM Cell Operations. In: Xie Y, editor. Emerging Memory Technologies: Design, Architecture, and Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 117–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for British Medical Bulletin.

Blog post
Luntz S. Ash Borer Trapped By Quest For Sex [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Educating Deaf Students at Federally Assisted Postsecondary Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Feb. Report No.: 129130.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Medina LM. Living with Global Shocks: Examining the Responses of Firms and Governments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Harshing the Mellow of Angsty Hipsters. New York Times. 2016 Sep 15;C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBritish Medical Bulletin
AbbreviationBr. Med. Bull.
ISSN (print)0007-1420
ISSN (online)1471-8391
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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