How to format your references using the Journal of Robotic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Robotic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Janson S (2011) Computer science. Networking--smoothly does it. Science 333:298–299
A journal article with 2 authors
Ortiz C, Boyce MC (2008) Materials science. Bioinspired structural materials. Science 319:1053–1054
A journal article with 3 authors
Takeuchi N, Yamanashi Y, Yoshikawa N (2014) Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices. Sci Rep 4:6354
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Moffitt JR, Bambah-Mukku D, Eichhorn SW, et al (2018) Molecular, spatial, and functional single-cell profiling of the hypothalamic preoptic region. Science 362:

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korhonen J, Savolainen T, Soininen J (2013) Deploying IPv6 in 3GPP Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Fuhr N, Quaresma P, Gonçalves T, et al (2016) Experimental IR Meets Multilinguality, Multimodality, and Interaction: 7th International Conference of the CLEF Association, CLEF 2016, Évora, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Guipaud O (2013) Serum and Plasma Proteomics and Its Possible Use as Detector and Predictor of Radiation Diseases. In: Leszczynski D (ed) Radiation Proteomics: The effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on cells and tissues. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 61–86

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Robotic Surgery.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) Astronomers Discover A Middleweight Black Hole For The First Time. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Aviation Safety: Commuter Airports Should Participate in the Airport Certification Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mendoza-Williams J (2015) Road to success: The experiences of academically successful graduation-bound African American males. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2017) Milestone for BMI: More Than $1 Billion in Music Royalties. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Robotic Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Robot. Surg.
ISSN (print)1863-2483
ISSN (online)1863-2491
ScopeHealth Informatics

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