How to format your references using the Journal of Robotic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Robotic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beutler E (2004) Cell biology. “Pumping” iron: the proteins. Science 306:2051–2053
A journal article with 2 authors
Morata G, Ballesteros-Arias L (2014) Developmental Biology. Death to the losers. Science 346:1181–1182
A journal article with 3 authors
Bockrath C, Ballhaus C, Holzheid A (2004) Fractionation of the platinum-group elements during mantle melting. Science 305:1951–1953
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bogdan A, Molina MJ, Tenhu H, et al (2014) Visualization of freezing process in situ upon cooling and warming of aqueous solutions. Sci Rep 4:7414

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson J, Gaare M, Holguín J, et al (2016) Professional Clojure. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
Nalbantis G (2016) The Demand for International Football Telecasts in the United States. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
García R, Suárez JC, Patenaude G (2007) Delineation of individual tree crowns for LiDAR tree and stand parameter estimation in Scottish woodlands. In: Fabrikant SI, Wachowicz M (eds) The European Information Society: Leading the Way with Geo-information. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 55–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Robotic Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Former NASA Engineer Plans To Plant 1 Billion Trees A Year Using Drones. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) FCC: Provision of Roaming Services by Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Plosky WD (2017) An Investment Case for Addressing Social Drivers of Structural Stigma and Discrimination Against Refugees in Resource-Poor Urban Areas. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2015) Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times C32

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Robotic Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Robot. Surg.
ISSN (print)1863-2483
ISSN (online)1863-2491
ScopeHealth Informatics

Other styles