How to format your references using the Journal of Robotic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Robotic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sargent M (2008) Obituary: Willis E. Lamb Jr (1913-2008). Nature 453:867
A journal article with 2 authors
Sack FD, Chen J-G (2009) Plant science. Pores in place. Science 323:592–593
A journal article with 3 authors
Das G, Talukdar P, Matile S (2002) Fluorometric detection of enzyme activity with synthetic supramolecular pores. Science 298:1600–1602
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Thomas CD, Bodsworth EJ, Wilson RJ, et al (2001) Ecological and evolutionary processes at expanding range margins. Nature 411:577–581

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parker D (2016) International Valuation Standards. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Chen H (2011) Large Research Infrastructures Development in China: A Roadmap to 2050. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Meduna A, Zemek P (2014) Chapter 4 Context-Based Grammatical Regulation. In: Zemek P (ed) Regulated Grammars and Automata. Springer, New York, NY, pp 39–154

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Robotic Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Can You Really Be Poisoned By Green Or Sprouting Potatoes? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Compliance Status of Many Biomedical Equipment Items Still Unknown. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seyed Jalali Aghdam SM (2015) Silica aerogel, an alternative to micromachined air gap for thermal insulation of microheaters. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2014) Friday File. New York Times C33

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Robotic Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Robot. Surg.
ISSN (print)1863-2483
ISSN (online)1863-2491
ScopeHealth Informatics

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