How to format your references using the Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haufe G. Chemistry. Putting a greenhouse gas to work. Science. 2012;338(6112):1298.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang X, Key JR. Recent trends in Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties from space. Science. 2003;299(5613):1725-1728.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang S, Hashimoto N, Ohnuki S. Hydrogen-induced change in core structures of {110}[111] edge and {110}[111] screw dislocations in iron. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2760.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rolef Ben-Shahar T, Heeger S, Lehane C, et al. Eco1-dependent cohesin acetylation during establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Science. 2008;321(5888):563-566.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meinert CL. Clinical Trials Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Cho WCS, ed. Evidence-Based Anticancer Materia Medica. Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Kolosova N, Bohlmann J. Conifer Defense Against Insects and Fungal Pathogens. In: Matyssek R, Schnyder H, Oßwald W, Ernst D, Munch JC, Pretzsch H, eds. Growth and Defence in Plants: Resource Allocation at Multiple Scales. Ecological Studies. Springer; 2012:85-109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery.

Blog post
Taub B. Most People Are Prone To “Remembering” Fake Events. IFLScience. Published December 9, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Possible Increased Use of the Federal Telecommunications System (FTS) by Government Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dillard C. Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) and Implementation Science. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Koblin J. TV Host ‘Ashamed’ of Lewd Chat With Trump. New York Times. October 8, 2016:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery
ISSN (print)0039-6060

Other styles