How to format your references using the Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Wadman M. Race is on for flu vaccine. Nature. 2005;438(7064):23.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Metz M, Fütterer J. Biodiversity (Communications arising): suspect evidence of transgenic contamination. Nature. 2002;416(6881):600-601; discussion 600, 602.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ahn CH, Triscone J-M, Mannhart J. Electric field effect in correlated oxide systems. Nature. 2003;424(6952):1015-1018.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Vecchi C, Montosi G, Zhang K, et al. ER stress controls iron metabolism through induction of hepcidin. Science. 2009;325(5942):877-880.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Gallant BJ. Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Manual. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1.
Mason JW, ed. Exoplanets: Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gordon M, Guo S, Hogan HB. Abuse: Elder Abuse. In: Have HT, ed. Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics. Springer International Publishing; 2016:14-21.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J. New Type Of Planetary Object May Have Formed Earth And The Moon. IFLScience. Published May 24, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/space/new-type-of-planetary-object-may-have-formed-earth-and-the-moon/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Undeclared Air Shipments of Dangerous Goods and DOT’s Enforcement Approach. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Garcia AD. Long-term shifts in adolescent Nicotine reward following early methylphenidate exposure in male and female rats. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Ember S, de la MERCED MJ. Sinclair Will Pay $3.9 Billion For Tribune. New York Times. May 9, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery
AbbreviationSurgery
ISSN (print)0039-6060
ScopeSurgery

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