How to format your references using the Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardie DG. Cell biology. Why starving cells eat themselves. Science. 2011;331(6016):410-411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raman KV, Moodera JS. Materials chemistry: A magnetic facelift for non-magnetic metals. Nature. 2015;524(7563):42-43.
A journal article with 3 authors
White N, Thompson M, Barwise T. Understanding the thermal evolution of deep-water continental margins. Nature. 2003;426(6964):334-343.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Baba H, Aziz F, Kaifu Y, Suwa G, Kono RT, Jacob T. Homo erectus calvarium from the Pleistocene of Java. Science. 2003;299(5611):1384-1388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laster B. Professional Git®. Indianapolis, IN, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Vashchenko V. System Level ESD Protection. (Scholz M, ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Germanakos P, Belk M. Personalization Categories and Adaptation Technologies. In: Belk M, ed. Human-Centred Web Adaptation and Personalization: From Theory to Practice. Human–Computer Interaction Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:103-135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Lips are the Most Exposed Erogenous Zone, Which Makes Kissing Feel Very Good. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: Human Factor Accidents and Issues Affecting Engineer Work Schedules. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomack A. Random Harmonic Polynomials. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. How ‘Great Comet’ Burned Out. New York Times. August 29, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery
ISSN (print)0039-6060

Other styles