How to format your references using the Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barry CE. Tuberculosis: Drug discovery goes au naturel. Nature. 2014;506(7489):436-437.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enright MC, Spratt BG. Genomics. The genomic view of bacterial diversification. Science. 2011;331(6016):407-409.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chesler PM, Liu H, Adams A. Holographic vortex liquids and superfluid turbulence. Science. 2013;341(6144):368-372.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lederbogen F, Kirsch P, Haddad L, et al. City living and urban upbringing affect neural social stress processing in humans. Nature. 2011;474(7352):498-501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsai CS. Biomacromolecules. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Torra V, Narukawa Y, Endo Y, eds. Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 11th International Conference, MDAI 2014, Tokyo, Japan, October 29-31, 2014. Proceedings. Vol 8825. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Oubre CM, Pierson DL, Ott CM. Microbiology. In: Nicogossian AE, Williams RS, Huntoon CL, Doarn CR, Polk JD, Schneider VS, eds. Space Physiology and Medicine: From Evidence to Practice. Springer; 2016:155-167.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery.

Blog post
Hale T. Bill Nye Explains What Would Happen If All Of Earth’s Ice Melted. IFLScience. Published September 13, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. SEC: EDGAR Dissemination Update. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swenson MD. Second generation Latinos and the perceived barriers to college enrollment. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski SF, Flegenheimer M. Christie Allies Joked of Disrupting Traffic at a Rabbi’s House. New York Times. February 27, 2014:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery
ISSN (print)0039-6060

Other styles