How to format your references using the European Retail Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Retail Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmittner, A. (2005): Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the Atlantic overturning circulation, in: Nature, Vol. 434, No. 7033, pp. 628–633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Funk, J. L.; Vitousek, P. M. (2007): Resource-use efficiency and plant invasion in low-resource systems, in: Nature, Vol. 446, No. 7139, pp. 1079–1081.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hirjibehedin, C. F.; Lutz, C. P.; Heinrich, A. J. (2006): Spin coupling in engineered atomic structures, in: Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 312, No. 5776, pp. 1021–1024.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chang, C.-Y.; Krishnan, T.; Wang, H.; et al. (2014): Non-antibiotic quorum sensing inhibitors acting against N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase as druggable target, in: Scientific reports, Vol. 4, p. 7245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCrary, S. A. (2010): Mastering Corporate Finance Essentials, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chio, C. D.; Brabazon, A.; Caro, G. A. D.; et al. (2010): Applications of Evolutionary Computation: EvoApplications 2010: EvoCOMNET, EvoENVIRONMENT, EvoFIN, EvoMUSART, and EvoTRANSLOG, Istanbul, Turkey, April 7-9, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Mishra, M. K.; Islam, S. K. H.; Biswas, G. P. (2014): Design of ECC-Based ElGamal Encryption Scheme Using CL-PKC, in: Biswas, G. P.; Mukhopadhyay, S. (eds.): Recent Advances in Information Technology: RAIT-2014 Proceedings, New Delhi, pp. 27–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Retail Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015): 2014, The Year That Was: Health + MedicineIn: IFLScience. accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985): Biotechnology: The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Biotechnology Research Efforts, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Charpentier, D. T. (2017): Why Dey Talk Like Dat?: A Study of the Status of Cajun English as a Dialect or an AccentDoctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007): Supreme Court Constrains Judges’ Power in Sentencing, in: New York Times, p. A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmittner 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Funk/Vitousek 2007; Schmittner 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Funk/Vitousek 2007)
  • Three authors: (Hirjibehedin/Lutz/Heinrich 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Retail Research
ISSN (print)1867-8785

Other styles