How to format your references using the European Retail Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Retail Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolgin, E. (2014): Immunology: Oral solutions, in: Nature, Vol. 515, No. 7528, pp. S166-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ding, T.; Schloss, P. D. (2014): Dynamics and associations of microbial community types across the human body, in: Nature, Vol. 509, No. 7500, pp. 357–360.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vais, H.; Foskett, J. K.; Mak, D.-O. D. (2011): InsP3R channel gating altered by clustering?, in: Nature, Vol. 478, No. 7368, pp. E1-2; discussion E2-3.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
O’Doherty, J.; Dayan, P.; Schultz, J.; et al. (2004): Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning, in: Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 304, No. 5669, pp. 452–454.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitai, A. (2011): Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes: The role of the PN junction, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Colace, F.; De Santo, M.; Moscato, V.; et al. (2015): Data Management in Pervasive Systems, 1st ed. 2015, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Colarusso, M.; Evens, S. (2014): The Gelfand–Zeitlin integrable system and K-orbits on the flag variety, in: Howe, R.; Hunziker, M.; Willenbring, J. F. (eds.): Symmetry: Representation Theory and Its Applications: In Honor of Nolan R. Wallach, New York, NY, pp. 85–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Retail Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016): Astronomers Have Finally Discovered How The Solar Wind ChangesIn: IFLScience. ,, accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978): Department of Energy’s Consolidation of Information Processing Activities Needs More Attention, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sydow, K. (2010): A life review and Memory Album program to enhance family communication in assisted livingDoctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haigney, S. (2017): Roman Polanski Is Accused of Rape by a Former Actress, in: New York Times, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dolgin 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ding/Schloss 2014; Dolgin 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ding/Schloss 2014)
  • Three authors: (Vais/Foskett/Mak 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (O’Doherty et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Retail Research
ISSN (print)1867-8785

Other styles