How to format your references using the European Retail Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Retail Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, N. (2007): Antibodies: antibodies in the fast lane, in: Nature, Vol. 447, No. 7145, p. 743.
A journal article with 2 authors
Höfling, S.; Kavokin, A. (2014): Solid-state physics: A historic experiment redesigned, in: Nature, Vol. 514, No. 7522, pp. 313–314.
A journal article with 3 authors
Danielewicz, P.; Lacey, R.; Lynch, W. G. (2002): Determination of the equation of state of dense matter, in: Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 298, No. 5598, pp. 1592–1596.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
McConnell, J. R.; Arthern, R. J.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; et al. (2000): Changes in Greenland ice sheet elevation attributed primarily to snow accumulation variability, in: Nature, Vol. 406, No. 6798, pp. 877–879.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Camarillo, G.; García-Martín, M. A. (2005): The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Vittorini, P.; Gennari, R.; Marenzi, I.; et al. (2012): International Workshop on Evidence-Based Technology Enhanced Learning, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ilg, P.; Odenbach, S. (2009): Ferrofluid Structure and Rheology, in: Odenbach, S. (ed.): Colloidal Magnetic Fluids: Basics, Development and Application of Ferrofluids, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 1–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Retail Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015): Divers Encounter Enormous Ocean SunfishIn: IFLScience. ,, accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981): Stronger Actions Needed To Recover $730 Million in Defaulted National Direct Student Loans, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verdi, K. C. (2017): What Does It Mean to Be a Service-Learning Teacher? - An AutoethnographyDoctoral dissertation, University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2012): Londoners Adopt Twisted Loyalties, in: New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Blow 2007; Höfling/Kavokin 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Höfling/Kavokin 2014)
  • Three authors: (Danielewicz/Lacey/Lynch 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (McConnell et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Retail Research
ISSN (print)1867-8785

Other styles