How to format your references using the European Retail Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Retail Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Isner, J. M. (2002): Myocardial gene therapy, in: Nature, Vol. 415, No. 6868, pp. 234–239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lavik, E.; Ustin, J. (2012): Medicine. Leveraging shear stress to bust clots with nanoparticles, in: Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 337, No. 6095, pp. 658–659.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sambarey, A.; Prashanthi, K.; Chandra, N. (2013): Mining large-scale response networks reveals “topmost activities” in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, in: Scientific reports, Vol. 3, p. 2302.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ishikawa, K.; Takenaga, K.; Akimoto, M.; et al. (2008): ROS-generating mitochondrial DNA mutations can regulate tumor cell metastasis, in: Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 320, No. 5876, pp. 661–664.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C. (2014): Sinusoidal Vibration, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Aebi, M.; Gunzburg, R.; Szpalski, M. (2005): The Aging Spine, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Awange, J. L.; Paláncz, B. (2016): Groebner Basis, in: Paláncz, B. (ed.): Geospatial Algebraic Computations: Theory and Applications, Cham, pp. 37–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Retail Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015): Liquid Water May Once Have Flowed On VestaIn: IFLScience. ,, accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996): Programs for Land-Grant Schools, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darko-Mensah, K. (2019): Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure the Online Outsourcing Efficiency of Sub-Saharan African CountriesDoctoral dissertation, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007): Free-Speech Case Divides Bush and Religious Right, in: New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Isner 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Isner 2002; Lavik/Ustin 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lavik/Ustin 2012)
  • Three authors: (Sambarey/Prashanthi/Chandra 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ishikawa et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Retail Research
ISSN (print)1867-8785

Other styles