How to format your references using the European Retail Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Retail Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ashley-Ross, M. A. (2015): BIOMECHANICS. When it’s hip to be square, in: Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 349, No. 6243, pp. 30–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cande, S. C.; Stegman, D. R. (2011): Indian and African plate motions driven by the push force of the Réunion plume head, in: Nature, Vol. 475, No. 7354, pp. 47–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shi, Y.; Tyson, G. W.; DeLong, E. F. (2009): Metatranscriptomics reveals unique microbial small RNAs in the ocean’s water column, in: Nature, Vol. 459, No. 7244, pp. 266–269.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pietzsch, O.; Kubetzka, A.; Bode, M.; Wiesendanger, R. (2001): Observation of magnetic hysteresis at the nanometer scale by spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy, in: Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 292, No. 5524, pp. 2053–2056.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bunnell, T. (2016): From World City to the World in One City, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Nolte, G. (2009): Peace through International Law: The Role of the International Law Commission. A Colloquium at the Occasion of its Sixtieth Anniversary, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Shreenath, K. N.; Srinivasa, K. G. (2013): Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks, in: Chaki, N.; Meghanathan, N.; Nagamalai, D. (eds.): Computer Networks & Communications (NetCom): Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Networks & Communications, New York, NY, pp. 37–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Retail Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015): What Actually Causes A Supervolcanic Eruption?In: IFLScience. ,, accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009): Federal Lands: Survey of Land Managers’ Perspectives of Off-Highway Vehicle Use (GAO-09-547SP, June 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-509, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoover, J. H. (2009): The Arizona water-energy nexus: Electricity for water and wastewater servicesDoctoral dissertation, University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010): Underfunded and Over the Top, in: New York Times, p. B20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ashley-Ross 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ashley-Ross 2015; Cande/Stegman 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cande/Stegman 2011)
  • Three authors: (Shi/Tyson/DeLong 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Pietzsch et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Retail Research
ISSN (print)1867-8785

Other styles