How to format your references using the European Retail Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Retail Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chang, H. Y. (2009): Anatomic demarcation of cells: genes to patterns, in: Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 326, No. 5957, pp. 1206–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomson, M.; Gunawardena, J. (2009): Unlimited multistability in multisite phosphorylation systems, in: Nature, Vol. 460, No. 7252, pp. 274–277.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acar, M.; Becskei, A.; van Oudenaarden, A. (2005): Enhancement of cellular memory by reducing stochastic transitions, in: Nature, Vol. 435, No. 7039, pp. 228–232.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Stephan, K. E.; Marshall, J. C.; Friston, K. J.; et al. (2003): Lateralized cognitive processes and lateralized task control in the human brain, in: Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 301, No. 5631, pp. 384–386.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lebowitz, E. R.; Omer, H. (2013): Treating Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Magdalena, L.; Ojeda-Aciego, M.; et al. (2010): Foundations of Reasoning under Uncertainty, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Del Baldo, M. (2016): Formal Cooperation for Developing Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility Among Tourism SMEs in Italy: Insights, Limits and Potentialities of the Network Contract, in: Idowu, S. O. (ed.): Key Initiatives in Corporate Social Responsibility: Global Dimension of CSR in Corporate Entities, Cham, pp. 103–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Retail Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015): Watch A Whale Shoot A Rainbow Out Of Its BlowholeIn: IFLScience. ,, accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015): Cybersecurity: Recent Data Breaches Illustrate Need for Strong Controls across Federal Agencies, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ganatra, V. A. (2012): Impact of the media on body image and eating disordersDoctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2001): World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Rare Praise On Chechnya, in: New York Times, p. A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chang 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Chang 2009; Thomson/Gunawardena 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thomson/Gunawardena 2009)
  • Three authors: (Acar/Becskei/van Oudenaarden 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Stephan et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Retail Research
ISSN (print)1867-8785

Other styles