How to format your references using the BMC Palliative Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Palliative Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Soares D. Neurology: an ancient sensory organ in crocodilians. Nature. 2002;417:241–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fitter AH, Fitter RSR. Rapid changes in flowering time in British plants. Science. 2002;296:1689–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Alves JF, Lada CJ, Lada EA. Internal structure of a cold dark molecular cloud inferred from the extinction of background starlight. Nature. 2001;409:159–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Medaglia C, Giladi A, Stoler-Barak L, De Giovanni M, Salame TM, Biram A, et al. Spatial reconstruction of immune niches by combining photoactivatable reporters and scRNA-seq. Science. 2017;358:1622–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Paul S. Digital Video Distribution in Broadband, Television, Mobile and Converged Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Bock HG, Hoang XP, Rannacher R, Schlöder JP, editors. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Processes - HPSC 2012: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing, March 5-9, 2012, Hanoi, Vietnam. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Li X, Wu R. Cross-Border Governance: The Merger of Guangzhou and Foshan. In: Altrock U, Schoon S, editors. Maturing Megacities: The Pearl River Delta in Progressive Transformation. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 83–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Palliative Care.

Blog post
1. Hale T. This Is What The Internet Looked Like In 1973. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/this-is-what-the-internet-looked-like-in-1973/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Efforts to Expand the New York Terminal Area Automation System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Schellhous WT. Factors and Interactions Contributing to the Risk of Fire following Earthquake for Urban Southern California. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hollander S. Prep School Game Introduces Motivation Skills to Inner City Children. New York Times. 2002;:D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Palliative Care
AbbreviationBMC Palliat. Care
ISSN (online)1472-684X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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