How to format your references using the BMC Palliative Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Palliative Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schiermeier Q. G8 climate target questioned. Nature. 2009;460:313.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shapiro NM, Koulakov I. Geophysics. Probing the underbelly of a supervolcano. Science. 2015;348:758–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mlynarski SN, Schuster CH, Morken JP. Asymmetric synthesis from terminal alkenes by cascades of diboration and cross-coupling. Nature. 2014;505:386–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gaietta G, Deerinck TJ, Adams SR, Bouwer J, Tour O, Laird DW, et al. Multicolor and electron microscopic imaging of connexin trafficking. Science. 2002;296:503–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cherian A. Energy and Global Climate Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Cleveland RH, editor. Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Foucaud F, Kovše M. On Graph Identification Problems and the Special Case of Identifying Vertices Using Paths. In: Arumugam S, Smyth WF, editors. Combinatorial Algorithms: 23rd International Workshop, IWOCA 2012, Tamil Nadu, India, July 19-21, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 32–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Palliative Care.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. NASA Study Reveals How Mars Turned From A Habitable World Into A Dead Planet. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/space/mars-atmosphere-study-reveals-how-it-turned-habitable-world-dead-planet0/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Progress Has Been Made, but Improvements Are Needed to Effectively Manage Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Seymour CR. Natives Versus Exotics and Grasses Versus Forbs: A Long-Term Study of Vegetation in La Jolla Valley. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Kelly M. Washington Memo; Household Hiring Is Trickier With New Broom in Capital. New York Times. 1993;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Palliative Care
AbbreviationBMC Palliat. Care
ISSN (online)1472-684X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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