How to format your references using the BMC Palliative Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Palliative Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brower V. Biomarkers: Portents of malignancy. Nature. 2011;471:S19-21.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wilhite AW, Fong EA. Scientific publications. Coercive citation in academic publishing. Science. 2012;335:542–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Spencer TJ, Osborn T, Kohl PA. Materials science. High-frequency chip connections. Science. 2008;320:756–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dohrenwend BP, Turner JB, Turse NA, Adams BG, Koenen KC, Marshall R. The psychological risks of Vietnam for U.S. veterans: a revisit with new data and methods. Science. 2006;313:979–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tsui JB-Y. Fundamentals of Global Positioning System Receivers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Nishida T. Conversational Informatics: A Data-Intensive Approach with Emphasis on Nonverbal Communication. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tan X, Jiang B. Minimization of the Maximum Distance between the Two Guards Patrolling a Polygonal Region. In: Snoeyink J, Lu P, Su K, Wang L, editors. Frontiers in Algorithmics and Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: Joint International Conference, FAW-AAIM 2012, Beijing, China, May 14-16, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 47–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Palliative Care.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Seabirds Are Eating Plastic Litter In Our Oceans – But Not Only Where You’d Expect. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/seabirds-are-eating-plastic-litter-our-oceans-not-only-where-you-d-expect/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: Weaknesses in FRA’s Safety Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dominguez YC. Recruitment, training, and support for foster parents of children birth to 4 years: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. The Bonds That Broke Puerto Rico. New York Times. 2015;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Palliative Care
AbbreviationBMC Palliat. Care
ISSN (online)1472-684X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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