How to format your references using the Sugar Tech citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sugar Tech. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thorne, Kip S. 2008. Retrospective: John Archibald Wheeler (1911-2008). Science (New York, N.Y.) 320: 1603.
A journal article with 2 authors
Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac, and Miquel Marín-Riera. 2013. Adaptive dynamics under development-based genotype-phenotype maps. Nature 497: 361–364.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pavlidis, Ioannis, Norman L. Eberhardt, and James A. Levine. 2002. Seeing through the face of deception. Nature 415: 35.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Grujić, Jelena, Carlos Gracia-Lázaro, Manfred Milinski, Dirk Semmann, Arne Traulsen, José A. Cuesta, Yamir Moreno, and Angel Sánchez. 2014. A comparative analysis of spatial Prisoner’s Dilemma experiments: conditional cooperation and payoff irrelevance. Scientific reports 4: 4615.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bard, John, and Vincent J. Kovarik Jr. 2007. Software Defined Radio. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Khan, Nauman. 2013. Designing TSVs for 3D Integrated Circuits. Edited by Soha Hassoun. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Recher, M., and K. S. Lang. 2006. Innate (Over)immunity and Adaptive Autoimmune Disease. In Current Concepts in Autoimmunity and Chronic Inflammation, ed. Andreas Radbruch and Peter E. Lipsky, 89–104. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sugar Tech.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. To Avoid Fights, Male Elephant Seals Remember The Calls Of Their Rivals. IFLScience. IFLScience. August 13.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Meeting the Aviation Challenges of the 1990s: Experts Define Key Problems and Identify Emerging Issues. RCED-91-152. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yanez, Angelica Maria. 2010. Chicano and Black radical activism of the 1960s: A comparison between the Brown Berets and the Black Panther Party in California. Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2017. The Surveillance State of Denmark. New York Times, July 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thorne 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Thorne 2008; Salazar-Ciudad and Marín-Riera 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Salazar-Ciudad and Marín-Riera 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Grujić et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSugar Tech
AbbreviationSugar Tech
ISSN (print)0972-1525
ISSN (online)0974-0740
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

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