How to format your references using the IZA Journal of European Labor Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IZA Journal of European Labor Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zwier TS (2004) Chemistry. The structure of protonated water clusters. Science 304:1119–1120
A journal article with 2 authors
French SW, Romanowicz B (2015) Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth’s mantle beneath major hotspots. Nature 525:95–99
A journal article with 3 authors
Wellman CH, Osterloff PL, Mohiuddin U (2003) Fragments of the earliest land plants. Nature 425:282–285
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ulloa Ulloa C, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Beck S, et al (2017) An integrated assessment of the vascular plant species of the Americas. Science 358:1614–1617

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu PP (2008) FPGA Prototyping by Verilog Examples. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Shaikh FK, Chowdhry BS, Ammari HM, et al (eds) (2013) Wireless Sensor Networks for Developing Countries: First International Conference, WSN4DC, Jamshoro, Pakistan, April 24-26, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Vestergaard P (2013) Natural Plant Diversity Development on a Man-Made Dune System. In: Martínez ML, Gallego-Fernández JB, Hesp PA (eds) Restoration of Coastal Dunes. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 49–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IZA Journal of European Labor Studies.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Particle Physicists Spot Hints of Dark Matter. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) DOD Still Needs To Clarify Policies for Performing Research and Development for Other Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Contartesi RA (2010) School climate: A correlational analysis of superintendent leadership communication and employee performance. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fitzgerald A (2017) Worlds in a Cell. New York Times BR13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zwier 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Zwier 2004; French and Romanowicz 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (French and Romanowicz 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Ulloa Ulloa et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleIZA Journal of European Labor Studies
ISSN (online)2193-9012

Other styles