How to format your references using the Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brownlee M. Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications. Nature. 2001;414:813–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kim K-H, Park Q-H. Perfect anti-reflection from first principles. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1062.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. McNamara AK, van Keken PE, Karato S-I. Development of anisotropic structure in the Earth’s lower mantle by solid-state convection. Nature. 2002;416:310–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schmidt M, Amann A, Keeney L, Pemble ME, Holmes JD, Petkov N, et al. Absence of evidence ≠ evidence of absence: statistical analysis of inclusions in multiferroic thin films. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5712.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Mazar Madjar H. Radio Spectrum Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Roach HI, Bronner F, Oreffo ROC, editors. Epigenetic Aspects of Chronic Diseases. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Allen MS, Kammer DC. Simple Experiments to Validate Modal Substructure Models. In: Mayes R, Rixen D, Griffith DT, De Klerk D, Chauhan S, Voormeeren SN, et al., editors. Topics in Experimental Dynamics Substructuring and Wind Turbine Dynamics, Volume 2: Proceedings of the 30th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2012. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 45–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. High Blood Pressure May Protect Over-80s From Dementia. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Department of the Interior: Year 2000 Computing Crisis Presents Risk of Disruption to Key Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Apr. Report No.: T-AIMD-98-149.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Johnson R. Grounding theatricality in reality: The creation of the role of Suzie in “Current Nobody” [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Belson K, Pilon M. After Tying in 100, Advancing in 200. New York Times. 2012 Jun 29;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSubstance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
AbbreviationSubst. Abuse Treat. Prev. Policy
ISSN (online)1747-597X
ScopeHealth Policy
Psychiatry and Mental health

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