How to format your references using the Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Grayson M. Ageing. Nature. 2012;492:S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kilger C, Bartenbach K. Patent law. New rules for German professors. Science. 2002;298:1173–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Blomster JP, Neff H, Glascock MD. Olmec pottery production and export in ancient Mexico determined through elemental analysis. Science. 2005;307:1068–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Seidenbecher T, Laxmi TR, Stork O, Pape H-C. Amygdalar and hippocampal theta rhythm synchronization during fear memory retrieval. Science. 2003;301:846–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Benslama M, Boucenna ML, Batatia H. Ad Hoc Networks Telecommunications and Game Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1. Lambris JD, editor. Current Topics in Innate Immunity. New York, NY: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Armani F, Boscolo A, Bressanutti M, Dalle Feste M, Piuzzi B, De Vecchi A, et al. Development of a Novel Snom Probe for in Liquid Biological Samples. In: Compagnone D, Baldini F, Di Natale C, Betta G, Siciliano P, editors. Sensors: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Sensors, Rome 19-21 February, 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 23–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Discover A Potential Anti-HIV Protein In Corals [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Property Management: NASA’s Goal of Increasing Equipment Reutilization May Fall Short without Further Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Jan. Report No.: GAO-09-187.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sweeney MT. Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare treatment outcomes: Wediko Children’s Services short-term residential treatment program [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. Ruminations on the Inquiring Mind. New York Times. 2017 Jul 16;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSubstance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
AbbreviationSubst. Abuse Treat. Prev. Policy
ISSN (online)1747-597X
ScopeHealth Policy
Psychiatry and Mental health

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