How to format your references using the Biological Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Seife C (2000): MATERIALS SCIENCE: Long-Wavelength Lasers Sniff Out New Uses. Science 290: 916–917.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Errami M, Garner H (2008): A tale of two citations. Nature 451: 397–399.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dethlefsen L, McFall-Ngai M, Relman DA (2007): An ecological and evolutionary perspective on human-microbe mutualism and disease. Nature 449: 811–818.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
1. Garzione CN, Hoke GD, Libarkin JC, Withers S, MacFadden B, Eiler J, et al. (2008): Rise of the Andes. Science 320: 1304–1307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gaffikin F, Morrissey M (2011): Planning in Divided Cities: Collaborative Shaping of Contested Space. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
1. Apsel A (2014): Design of Ultra-Low Power Impulse Radios, vol. 124 ((X. Wang & R. Dokania, editors)). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lamanna DD, Lodi G, Baldoni R (2012): How Not to Be Seen in the Cloud: A Progressive Privacy Solution for Desktop-as-a-Service. In: Meersman R, Panetto H, Dillon T, Rinderle-Ma S, Dadam P, Zhou X, et al., editors. On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2012: Confederated International Conferences: CoopIS, DOA-SVI, and ODBASE 2012, Rome, Italy, September 10-14, 2012. Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp 492–510.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Psychiatry.

Blog post
1. Luntz S (2017, February 9): Lack of Support When Coming Out Is Biggest Risk For Mental Health, Not Sexual Orientation. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1981): Alternatives for Funding a GI Bill. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Charoenphol D (2017): Using Robust Statistical Methodology to Evaluate the Performance of Project Delivery Systems: A Case Study of Horizontal Construction. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Lear S (2010, October 10): Mirror, Mirror. New York Times BR17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (2,4,6,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Psychiatry
AbbreviationBiol. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0006-3223
ISSN (online)1873-2402
ScopeBiological Psychiatry

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