How to format your references using the Biological Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Reynolds AM (2014): Mussels realize Weierstrassian Lévy walks as composite correlated random walks. Sci Rep 4: 4409.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Barthelme D, Sauer RT (2012): Identification of the Cdc48•20S proteasome as an ancient AAA+ proteolytic machine. Science 337: 843–846.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sigman DM, Jaccard SL, Haug GH (2004): Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate. Nature 428: 59–63.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
1. Ren D, Labandeira CC, Santiago-Blay JA, Rasnitsyn A, Shih C, Bashkuev A, et al. (2009): A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326: 840–847.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Alexandridis AK, Zapranis AD (2014): Wavelet Neural Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
1. Nagy L, Forsberg BR, Artaxo P (Eds.) (2016): Interactions Between Biosphere, Atmosphere and Human Land Use in the Amazon Basin, vol. 227. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Leuprecht C, Hall K (2014): Why Terror Networks are Dissimilar: How Structure Relates to Function. In: Masys AJ, editor. Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp 83–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Psychiatry.

Blog post
1. Andrew E (2014, October 24): No, NASA Has Not Predicted A Global Blackout in December. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1998): Managing for Results: Observations on NASA’s Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Glasgow HL (2015): Design and Selection of Probes for In Vivo Molecular Targeting and Imaging. La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sweeney-James KA (2016, October 25): A Wedding Night Upgrade at the Plaza. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (2,4,6,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Psychiatry
AbbreviationBiol. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0006-3223
ISSN (online)1873-2402
ScopeBiological Psychiatry

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