How to format your references using the Biological Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. McGloin D (2014): Applied physics: Optical trapping for space mirrors. Nature 506: 437–438.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schaefer BE, Pagnotta A (2012): An absence of ex-companion stars in the type Ia supernova remnant SNR 0509-67.5. Nature 481: 164–166.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dvorak M, Oswald W, Wu Z (2013): Bandgap opening by patterning graphene. Sci Rep 3: 2289.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
1. Imai S, Tsuge N, Tomotake M, Nagatome Y, Sawada H, Nagata T, Kumagai H (2002): Plant biochemistry: an onion enzyme that makes the eyes water. Nature 419: 685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schiek B, Rolfes I, Siweris H-J (2005): Noise in High-Frequency Circuits and Oscillators. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
1. Isokoski P, Springare J (Eds.) (2012): Haptics: Perception, Devices, Mobility, and Communication: International Conference, EuroHaptics 2012, Tampere, Finland, June 13-15, 2012 Proceedings, Part II, vol. 7283. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Knoche G, Kuhnhenn K, Vollmer C, Werner K (2014): The Need for Decarbonising Our Economy. In: Angrick M, Burger A, Lehmann H, editors. Factor X: Policy, Strategies and Instruments for a Sustainable Resource Use. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp 93–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Psychiatry.

Blog post
1. Andrews R (2016, November 17): Five WW2 Warships And A Submarine Have Vanished From The Seafloor. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (2012): Telecommunications: Exposure and Testing Requirements for Mobile Phones Should Be Reassessed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Stefania S (2017): From Italian American Icon to Working Class Hero: Perspectives on Pietro Di Donato’s “Christ in Concrete.” Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L (2006, July 9): His Hipness, John G. Roberts. New York Times WK7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (2,4,6,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Psychiatry
AbbreviationBiol. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0006-3223
ISSN (online)1873-2402
ScopeBiological Psychiatry

Other styles