How to format your references using the ERA Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ERA Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie, T.: Physiology. Burn fat, live longer. Science. 322, 865–866 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Al Khawaja, U., Stoof, H.: Skyrmions in a ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate. Nature. 411, 918–920 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Villegas, C.E.P., Mendonça, P.B., Rocha, A.R.: Optical spectrum of bottom-up graphene nanoribbons: towards efficient atom-thick excitonic solar cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 6579 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kanno, Y., Kawashita, E., Kokado, A., Kuretake, H., Ikeda, K., Okada, K., Seishima, M., Ueshima, S., Matsuo, O., Matsuno, H.: α2AP mediated myofibroblast formation and the development of renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction. Sci. Rep. 4, 5967 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahlemeyer-Stubbe, A., Coleman, S.: A Practical Guide to Data Mining for Business and Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Goldberg, D.J. ed: Laser Dermatology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
Cherry, J.D.: How Can We Eradicate Pertussis. In: Finn, A., Curtis, N., and Pollard, A.J. (eds.) Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children V. pp. 41–51. Springer US, New York, NY (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ERA Forum.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Sharks Are Killing Sea Otters In California But Not Eating Them, And No One Knows Why,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Early Childhood Education: What Are the Costs of High-Quality Programs? U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Than, K.: The impact of companion pets on the well-being of older adults, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mishan, L.: The Taste of Darkness, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleERA Forum
ISSN (print)1612-3093
ISSN (online)1863-9038
Political Science and International Relations

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