How to format your references using the ERA Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ERA Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes, D.: Addiction: 4 big questions. Nature. 522, S63 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Kishore, S., Stamm, S.: The snoRNA HBII-52 regulates alternative splicing of the serotonin receptor 2C. Science. 311, 230–232 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Russell, S.H., Hancock, M.P., McCullough, J.: The pipeline. Benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Science. 316, 548–549 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Slavin, J.A., Anderson, B.J., Baker, D.N., Benna, M., Boardsen, S.A., Gloeckler, G., Gold, R.E., Ho, G.C., Korth, H., Krimigis, S.M., McNutt, R.L., Jr, Nittler, L.R., Raines, J.M., Sarantos, M., Schriver, D., Solomon, S.C., Starr, R.D., Trávnícek, P.M., Zurbuchen, T.H.: MESSENGER observations of extreme loading and unloading of Mercury’s magnetic tail. Science. 329, 665–668 (2010)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mascia, L.: Polymers in Industry from A-Z. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2011)
An edited book
Abdullah, M.A., Yahya, W.K., Ramli, N., Mohamed, S.R., Ahmad, B.E. eds: Regional Conference on Science, Technology and Social Sciences (RCSTSS 2014): Business and Social Sciences. Springer, Singapore (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Huebner, A.R., Somparn, P., Benjachat, T., Leelahavanichkul, A., Avihingsanon, Y., Fenton, R.A., Pisitkun, T.: Exosomes in Urine Biomarker Discovery. In: Gao, Y. (ed.) Urine Proteomics in Kidney Disease Biomarker Discovery. pp. 43–58. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ERA Forum.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: Evidence For Ancient Mega-Tsunamis Discovered On Mars,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Assessment of Testing Vertical Line Array Difar Sonobuoy AN/SS2-77. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1978)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, J.R.: Staging Vietnamese America: Music and the performance of Vietnamese American identities, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Soble, J., de la MERCED, M.J.: Takata, Preparing for a Sale, Is Said to Near Bankruptcy, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleERA Forum
ISSN (print)1612-3093
ISSN (online)1863-9038
Political Science and International Relations

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