How to format your references using the ERA Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ERA Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Henderson, G.M.: Climate. Caving in to new chronologies. Science. 313, 620–622 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Foster, D.J., Wilson, M.A.: Reverse replay of behavioural sequences in hippocampal place cells during the awake state. Nature. 440, 680–683 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Qi, Y., Dolgushev, M., Zhang, Z.: Dynamics of semiflexible recursive small-world polymer networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 7576 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hoffman, J.I., Forcada, J., Trathan, P.N., Amos, W.: Female fur seals show active choice for males that are heterozygous and unrelated. Nature. 445, 912–914 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P.I., Hardin, J.W.: Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2006)
An edited book
Holzinger, A., Röcker, C., Ziefle, M. eds: Smart Health: Open Problems and Future Challenges. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Kalra, M.K.: Dual-Source CT: Practical Aspects of Techniques and Applications. In: Kalra, M.K., Saini, S., and Rubin, G.D. (eds.) MDCT: From Protocols to Practice. pp. 42–51. Springer, Milano (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ERA Forum.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Antarctic Ozone Layer Shows Early Signs Of Healing,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Temporary Emergency Impact Aid Provided Education Support for Displaced Students. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2011)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cao, L.: A Field-Scale Simulation of the Reversible Nanoparticle Adsorption for Enhancing Oil Recovery Using Hydrophilic Nanofluids, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, P., Shear, M.D.: President Shifts Rationale For Firing F.B.I. Director, Calling Him a ‘Showboat,’ (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleERA Forum
ISSN (print)1612-3093
ISSN (online)1863-9038
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles