How to format your references using the Obesity Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Obesity Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman, T., 2004. Proteins on the move. Nature 430, 111.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zwierlein, M.W., Ketterle, W., 2006. Comment on “Pairing and phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas.” Science 314, 54; author reply 54.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bowman, G.D., O’Donnell, M., Kuriyan, J., 2004. Structural analysis of a eukaryotic sliding DNA clamp-clamp loader complex. Nature 429, 724–730.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shinoda, T., Ogawa, H., Cornelius, F., Toyoshima, C., 2009. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump at 2.4 A resolution. Nature 459, 446–450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Helsel, D.R., 2011. Statistics for Censored Environmental Data Using Minitab® and R. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gao, G.R., Pollock, L.L., Cavazos, J., Li, X. (Eds.), 2010. Languages and Compilers for Parallel Computing: 22nd International Workshop, LCPC 2009, Newark, DE, USA, October 8-10, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kendoul, F., 2013. Towards a Unified Framework for UAS Autonomy and Technology Readiness Assessment (ATRA), in: Nonami, K., Kartidjo, M., Yoon, K.-J., Budiyono, A. (Eds.), Autonomous Control Systems and Vehicles: Intelligent Unmanned Systems, Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 55–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Obesity Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Newly Emerged Pacific “Island” Photographed For The First Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. FAA’s Implementation of the Expanded East Coast Plan (No. T-RCED-88-39). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Addington, L.M., 2012. Students’ Preferences for Information Sources during the Undergraduate College Search Process: The Influence of Technology (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic, B., Walsh, M.W., 2012. G.M. Plans Big Buyouts For Retirees In Pension. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman, 2004; Zwierlein and Ketterle, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zwierlein and Ketterle, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Shinoda et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleObesity Medicine
AbbreviationObes. Med.
ISSN (print)2451-8476
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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