How to format your references using the Obesity Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Obesity Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scodeggio, M., 2001. Astronomy. Toward resolving the mystery of galaxy formation. Science 294, 537–538.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knapp, S., Mallet, J., 2003. Ecology. Refuting refugia? Science 300, 71–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bormashenko, E., Musin, A., Grynyov, R., 2014. Scaling law governing the roughness of the swash edge line. Sci. Rep. 4, 6243.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ma, H.F., Wang, G.Z., Jiang, W.X., Cui, T.J., 2014. Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials. Sci. Rep. 4, 6337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verdu, J., 2012. Oxidative Ageing of Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Horita, M., Koizumi, H. (Eds.), 2009. Innovations in Collaborative Urban Regeneration, cSUR-UT Series: Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Ilić, D., Laibinis, L., Latvala, T., Troubitsyna, E., Varpaaniemi, K., 2013. Deployment in the Space Sector, in: Romanovsky, A., Thomas, M. (Eds.), Industrial Deployment of System Engineering Methods. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 45–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Obesity Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. New Method Of Producing Pluripotent Stem Cells Makes Fewer, But Better Cells [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Higher Education: Improved Tax Information Could Help Pay for College (No. GAO-12-863T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kranz, T.E., 2017. Body, Land, and Memory: Counter-Narratives in the Poetry of Minnie Bruce Pratt, Brenda Marie Osbey, and Natasha Trethewey (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, S.F., 2015. Comic Says<br />His Story <br />About 9/11<br />Was a Lie. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scodeggio, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Knapp and Mallet, 2003; Scodeggio, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knapp and Mallet, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleObesity Medicine
AbbreviationObes. Med.
ISSN (print)2451-8476
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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