How to format your references using the Obesity Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Obesity Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Hara, K., 2010. Canada must free scientists to talk to journalists. Nature 467, 501.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chu, S., Majumdar, A., 2012. Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future. Nature 488, 294–303.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miyamoto, K., Miyake, S., Yamamura, T., 2001. A synthetic glycolipid prevents autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inducing TH2 bias of natural killer T cells. Nature 413, 531–534.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gu, B., Chang, J., Min, Y., Ge, Y., Zhu, Q., Galloway, J.N., Peng, C., 2013. The role of industrial nitrogen in the global nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. Sci. Rep. 3, 2579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parker, D., 2016. International Valuation Standards. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Jones, T., 2007. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Brunner, R.D., Lynch, A.H., 2010. Reframing the Context, in: Lynch, A.H. (Ed.), Adaptive Governance and Climate Change. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, pp. 261–315.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Obesity Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. How Many Trees Are There Left On Earth? More Than 3 Trillion, Finds Major New Study [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. University Finances: Research Revenues and Expenditures (No. 130998). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ladd, R.J., 2014. A Study of Alternative Education Programs in the State of Missouri (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B., 2016. MF Global’s Fall May Cost Corzine About $5 Million. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Hara, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Chu and Majumdar, 2012; O’Hara, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chu and Majumdar, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Gu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleObesity Medicine
AbbreviationObes. Med.
ISSN (print)2451-8476
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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