How to format your references using the Obesity Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Obesity Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Canup, R., 2015. Planetary science: The Moon’s tilt for gold. Nature 527, 455–456.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuan, C., Yamagata, T., 2014. California Niño/Niña. Sci. Rep. 4, 4801.
A journal article with 3 authors
Babu, M.M., Kriwacki, R.W., Pappu, R.V., 2012. Structural biology. Versatility from protein disorder. Science 337, 1460–1461.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Raghavan, S., Manzanillo, P., Chan, K., Dovey, C., Cox, J.S., 2008. Secreted transcription factor controls Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence. Nature 454, 717–721.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burwick, F., 2015. Romanticism. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Züst, R., 2006. No More Muddling Through: Mastering Complex Projects in Engineering and Management. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, A., Yuan, L., Wang, J., Zhang, T., 2013. Performance Analysis of Interference Localization Based on Doppler Frequency Shift of a Single Satellite, in: Sun, J., Jiao, W., Wu, H., Shi, C. (Eds.), China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2013 Proceedings: BeiDou/GNSS Navigation Applications • Test & Assessment Technology • User Terminal Technology, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 35–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Obesity Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. In The Path Of The Polar Bears: What It’s Like To Be An Arctic Scientist [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Better Management Needed in Civil Agencies Over Selection of In-House or Contract Performance of Support Activities (No. B-158685). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oppenheimer, C., 2010. Use of bibliotherapy as an adjunctive therapy with bereaved children: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski, S., 2017. With a Crucial Tool Disabled, Financial Aid Applications Get Harder. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Canup, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Canup, 2015; Yuan and Yamagata, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yuan and Yamagata, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Raghavan et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleObesity Medicine
AbbreviationObes. Med.
ISSN (print)2451-8476
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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