How to format your references using the Studies in Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Connor, C. E. (2002). Neuroscience. Reconstructing a 3D world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5592), 376–377.
A journal article with 2 authors
Echeverri, K., & Tanaka, E. M. (2002). Ectoderm to mesoderm lineage switching during axolotl tail regeneration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5600), 1993–1996.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gitlin, L., Karelsky, S., & Andino, R. (2002). Short interfering RNA confers intracellular antiviral immunity in human cells. Nature, 418(6896), 430–434.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Martianov, I., Ramadass, A., Serra Barros, A., Chow, N., & Akoulitchev, A. (2007). Repression of the human dihydrofolate reductase gene by a non-coding interfering transcript. Nature, 445(7128), 666–670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mamishev, A., & Williams, S. (2010). Technical Writing for Teams. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Andreescu, T. (2014). Complex Numbers from A to ... Z. (D. Andrica, Ed.) (2nd ed. 2014). Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Driscoll, B., Gupta, N., Vettor, R., Hirani, Z., & Tenny, L. (2013). Loading Entities and Navigation Properties. In N. Gupta, R. Vettor, Z. Hirani, & L. Tenny (Eds.), Entity Framework 6 Recipes (pp. 129–181). Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Science Education.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, September 16). This Summer’s Arctic Sea Ice Extent Is The Second Lowest On Record. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Contracts Awarded to Aero Spacelines, Inc., for Airlift Outsized Cargo (No. B-146804). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz, W. (2009). Extended services post reunification to enhance parent-child attachments: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., & Heller, S. (2016, November 24). Say It With Tickets. New York Times, p. C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Connor, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Connor, 2002; Echeverri & Tanaka, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Echeverri & Tanaka, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gitlin, Karelsky, & Andino, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Martianov, Ramadass, Serra Barros, Chow, & Akoulitchev, 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Science Education
AbbreviationStud. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0305-7267
ISSN (online)1940-8412

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