How to format your references using the Studies in Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rader, C. (2015). Chemical biology: How to minimalize antibodies. Nature, 518(7537), 38–39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Denef, V. J., & Banfield, J. F. (2012). In situ evolutionary rate measurements show ecological success of recently emerged bacterial hybrids. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6080), 462–466.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hummer, G., Rasaiah, J. C., & Noworyta, J. P. (2001). Water conduction through the hydrophobic channel of a carbon nanotube. Nature, 414(6860), 188–190.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, J., Yu, C., Wang, L., Li, Y., Ren, Y., & Shum, K. (2014). Energy barrier at the N719-dye/CsSnI₃ interface for photogenerated holes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Scientific Reports, 4, 6954.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flood, B. G. (2013). Wealth Exposed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Baba, A., Howard, K. W. F., & Gunduz, O. (Eds.). (2006). Groundwater and Ecosystems. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Majumder, M. A., Byrne, M. M., Bongmba, E., Rothenberg, L. S., & Dubler, N. N. (2008). Ethical Challenges of Patenting “Nature”: Legal and Economic Accounts of Altered Nature as Property. In B. A. Lustig, B. A. Brody, & G. P. McKenny (Eds.), Altering Nature: Volume One: Concepts of ‘Nature’ and ‘The Natural’ in Biotechnology Debates (pp. 199–273). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Science Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, May 29). How To Stop Your Phone From Being Hacked. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Airport Development: Improvement Needed in Federal Planning (T-RCED-92-30). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hooper, K. J. (2017). Los Angeles School Police Department Arrest Diversion: A Process Evaluation [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. (2017, March 5). Another Powerful Woman. Same Sexist Attacks. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rader, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Denef & Banfield, 2012; Rader, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Denef & Banfield, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Hummer et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Science Education
AbbreviationStud. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0305-7267
ISSN (online)1940-8412

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