How to format your references using the Studies in Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Frenking, G. (2015). Inorganic chemistry: Peculiar boron startles again. Nature, 522(7556), 297–298.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feld, G. B., & Born, J. (2015). Neuroscience. Exploiting sleep to modify bad attitudes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6238), 971–972.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fearon, D. T., Manders, P., & Wagner, S. D. (2001). Arrested differentiation, the self-renewing memory lymphocyte, and vaccination. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5528), 248–250.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Powell, P. A., Wesley, C., Spencer, S., & Cagan, R. L. (2001). Scabrous complexes with Notch to mediate boundary formation. Nature, 409(6820), 626–630.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Focardi, S. M., Fabozzi, F. J., & Bali, T. G. (2013). Mathematical Methods for Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zuccon, G., Geva, S., Joho, H., Scholer, F., Sun, A., & Zhang, P. (Eds.). (2015). Information Retrieval Technology: 11th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2015, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, December 2-4, 2015. Proceedings (1st ed. 2015, Vol. 9460). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jou, Y.-H. (2013). Family Relationship Quality and Its Psychological Effects Among Taiwanese Adolescents. In C.-C. Yi (Ed.), The Psychological Well-being of East Asian Youth (pp. 69–88). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Science Education.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, January 18). Only 25 Hainan Gibbons Remain – What Next for the World’s Rarest Primate? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Aviation Safety: Conditions Within the Air Traffic Control Work Force (RCED-89-113FS). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morissette, T. M. (2009). Elder friendliness and social participation of older adults living within age-segregated retirement communities [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M. (2017, September 8). Give My Regards To E Street. New York Times, AR37.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Frenking, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Feld & Born, 2015; Frenking, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Feld & Born, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Fearon et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Powell et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Science Education
AbbreviationStud. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0305-7267
ISSN (online)1940-8412

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