How to format your references using the The Cryosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Cryosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q.: Clouded vision, Nature, 422(6929), 356–357, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Voytas, D. F. and Joung, J. K.: Plant science. DNA binding made easy, Science, 326(5959), 1491–1492, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agrawal, A. F., Brodie, E. D., 3rd and Brown, J.: Parent-offspring coadaptation and the dual genetic control of maternal care, Science, 292(5522), 1710–1712, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Cheng, Y., Zhang, H., Varanasi, C. V. and Liu, J.: Highly efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts based on winged carbon nanotubes, Sci. Rep., 3, 3195, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Breitmaier, E.: Vom NMR-Spektrum zur Strukturformel organischer Verbindungen, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany., 2005.
An edited book
Krcmar, H., Reussner, R. and Rumpe, B., Eds.: Trusted Cloud Computing, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Mapesa, E. U., Tress, M., Reiche, M. and Kremer, F.: Molecular Dynamics of Poly(cis-1,4-Isoprene) in 1- and 2-Dimensional Confinement, in Dynamics in Geometrical Confinement, edited by F. Kremer, pp. 95–126, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Cryosphere.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Rotavirus Vaccine Slashes Ontario Hospital Admissions, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: FCC: Non-Voice, Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blumenfeld, D. B.: Policy Making and the U.S. Response to Global HIV/AIDS, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC., 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rafkin, L.: Sascha Rothchild and Matt Kay, New York Times, 20th March, ST14, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier, 2003; Voytas and Joung, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Voytas and Joung, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Cheng et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Cryosphere
ISSN (print)1994-0416
ISSN (online)1994-0424
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Water Science and Technology

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