How to format your references using the The Cryosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Cryosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stewart, M.: Cell biology. Nuclear export of small RNAs, Science, 326, 1195–1196, 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoehler, T. M. and Alperin, M. J.: Biogeochemistry: Methane minimalism, Nature, 507, 436–437, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, A. E., Ginty, D. D., and Fan, C.-M.: Protein kinase A signalling via CREB controls myogenesis induced by Wnt proteins, Nature, 433, 317–322, 2005.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Noonan, F. P., Recio, J. A., Takayama, H., Duray, P., Anver, M. R., Rush, W. L., De Fabo, E. C., and Merlino, G.: Neonatal sunburn and melanoma in mice, Nature, 413, 271–272, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Means, R. S.: Green Building:, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
Jones, C. B. and Lloyd, J. L. (Eds.): Dependable and Historic Computing: Essays Dedicated to Brian Randell on the Occasion of His 75th Birthday, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XII, 523 p. 137 illus., 60 illus. in color pp., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Milivojevic, S.: Re-bordering the Peripheral Global North and Global South: Game of Drones, Immobilising Mobile Bodies and Decentring Perspectives on Drones in Border Policing, in: Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems: Legal and Social Implications for Security and Surveillance, edited by: Završnik, A., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 83–100, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Cryosphere.

Blog post
Rescuers Battle To Save Remaining Whales After Hundreds Die In Huge Mass Stranding:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aerial Refueling Initiative: Cross-Service Analysis Needed To Determine Best Approach, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Torres, C.: Grassroots in Santa Ana: Identity and conceptualizing community, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L.: New Setting for Double-Diamond Cottage, New York Times, 5th March, 14LI3, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stewart, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Stewart, 2009; Hoehler and Alperin, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoehler and Alperin, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Noonan et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Cryosphere
ISSN (print)1994-0416
ISSN (online)1994-0424
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Water Science and Technology

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