How to format your references using the The Cryosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Cryosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Granovetter, M.: Social science. Ignorance, knowledge, and outcomes in a small world, Science, 301, 773–774, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, E. and Shilatifard, A.: Developmental biology. Histone cross-talk in stem cells, Science, 323, 221–222, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang, Y., Dong, Y., and Chawla, N. V.: Predicting node degree centrality with the node prominence profile, Sci. Rep., 4, 7236, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Simons, M., Minson, S. E., Sladen, A., Ortega, F., Jiang, J., Owen, S. E., Meng, L., Ampuero, J.-P., Wei, S., Chu, R., Helmberger, D. V., Kanamori, H., Hetland, E., Moore, A. W., and Webb, F. H.: The 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake: mosaicking the megathrust from seconds to centuries, Science, 332, 1421–1425, 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thériault, M. and Rosiers, F. D.: Modeling Urban Dynamics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Illouz, Y.-G. and Sterodimas, A. (Eds.): Adipose Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XII, 278 p. 104 illus., 93 illus. in color pp., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Msadek, N., Kiefhaber, R., Fechner, B., and Ungerer, T.: Trust-Enhanced Self-configuration for Organic Computing Systems, in: Architecture of Computing Systems – ARCS 2014: 27th International Conference, Lübeck, Germany, February 25-28, 2014. Proceedings, edited by: Maehle, E., Römer, K., Karl, W., and Tovar, E., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 37–48, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Cryosphere.

Blog post
The Things People Ask About The Scientific Consensus On Climate Change:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Denver International Airport: Baggage Handling, Contracting, and Other Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mani, V.: Empirical study of link between operations and financial performance for retailers, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Beleaguered Russian Orchestra Tours U.S, New York Times, 4th March, B11, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Granovetter, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Granovetter, 2003; Smith and Shilatifard, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Shilatifard, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Simons et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Cryosphere
ISSN (print)1994-0416
ISSN (online)1994-0424
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Water Science and Technology

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