How to format your references using the The Cryosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Cryosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moazed, D.: Molecular biology. Rejoice--RNAi for yeast, Science, 326, 533–534, 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yonezawa, T. and Hasegawa, M.: Was the universal common ancestry proved?, Nature, 468, E9; discussion E10, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cincotta, R. P., Wisnewski, J., and Engelman, R.: Human population in the biodiversity hotspots, Nature, 404, 990–992, 2000.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Hwang, G.-W., Murai, Y., Takahashi, T., and Naganuma, A.: The protein transportation pathway from Golgi to vacuoles via endosomes plays a role in enhancement of methylmercury toxicity, Sci. Rep., 4, 5888, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schumer, P. D.: Mathematical Journeys, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
Eskin, E. and Workman, C. (Eds.): Regulatory Genomics: RECOMB 2004 International Workshop, RRG 2004, San Diego, Ca, USA, March 26-27, 2004, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, VIII, 116 p pp., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, P., Xu, J., Lin, Z., Xu, D., Mao, B., and Liu, P.: A Practical Approach for Adaptive Data Structure Layout Randomization, in: Computer Security -- ESORICS 2015: 20th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Vienna, Austria, September 21-25, 2015, Proceedings, Part I, edited by: Pernul, G., Y A Ryan, P., and Weippl, E., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 69–89, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Cryosphere.

Blog post
Young Girl Has Tapeworm Cyst Half The Size Of Her Brain Removed:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Secure Flight: TSA Should Take Additional Steps to Determine Program Effectiveness, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mowery, K.: Beneath the Attack Surface, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J.: Harvey Picks Up a Win, With Plenty of Support, New York Times, 29th May, D6, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moazed, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Moazed, 2009; Yonezawa and Hasegawa, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yonezawa and Hasegawa, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Hwang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Cryosphere
ISSN (print)1994-0416
ISSN (online)1994-0424
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Water Science and Technology

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