How to format your references using the The Cryosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Cryosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vanderah, T. A.: Materials science. Talking ceramics, Science, 298(5596), 1182–1184, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rubin, J. D. and Taatjes, D. J.: Molecular biology: Mediating transcription and RNA export, Nature, 526(7572), 199–200, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Couch, F. J., Nathanson, K. L. and Offit, K.: Two decades after BRCA: setting paradigms in personalized cancer care and prevention, Science, 343(6178), 1466–1470, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Peñuelas, J., Farré-Armengol, G., Llusia, J., Gargallo-Garriga, A., Rico, L., Sardans, J., Terradas, J. and Filella, I.: Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions, Sci. Rep., 4, 6727, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Passarelli, D.: Trading Options Greeks, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2012.
An edited book
Kolb, A. and Koch, R., Eds.: Dynamic 3D Imaging: DAGM 2009 Workshop, Dyn3D 2009, Jena, Germany, September 9, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Bubalo, J.: Conditioning Regimens, in Blood and Marrow Transplant Handbook: Comprehensive Guide for Patient Care, edited by R. T. Maziarz and S. Slater, pp. 39–49, Springer, New York, NY., 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Cryosphere.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: Watch Live As SpaceX Launches And Lands Yet Another Rocket, IFLScience, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: Overview of the Cramming Problem, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reser, G.: Assessing the Relationship between Adult Attachment and Differentiation of Self to Coparental Divorce Adjustment, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M.: A Brooklyn Life On the Big Screen, New York Times, 29th August, E5, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vanderah, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Rubin and Taatjes, 2015; Vanderah, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rubin and Taatjes, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Peñuelas et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Cryosphere
ISSN (print)1994-0416
ISSN (online)1994-0424
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Water Science and Technology

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