How to format your references using the Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Inguscio, M. (2003). “Physics. How to freeze out collisions.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5626), 1671–1673.
A journal article with 2 authors
Macosko, E. Z., and McCarroll, S. A. (2013). “Genetics. Our fallen genomes.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6158), 564–565.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daniel, S., Chaudhury, M. K., and Chen, J. C. (2001). “Fast drop movements resulting from the phase change on a gradient surface.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5504), 633–636.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barabash, S., Fedorov, A., Lundin, R., and Sauvaud, J.-A. (2007). “Martian atmospheric erosion rates.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5811), 501–503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tissue, B. M. (2013). Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Reible, D. D. (Ed.). (2014). Processes, Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments. SERDP ESTCP Environmental Remediation Technology, Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Schinianakis, D., and Stouraitis, T. (2016). “Residue Number Systems in Cryptography: Design, Challenges, Robustness.” Secure System Design and Trustable Computing, C.-H. Chang and M. Potkonjak, eds., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 115–161.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). “Jaguars May Have Evolved To Hunt Particularly Dangerous Prey.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Standards and Technology: Impact of Fee Increases on Measurement Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cappiello, D. M. (2010). “Minding the gap: Western export controls and soviet technology policy during the 1960s.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). “Bruce Arrived in Camp Expecting to Stay With Team.” New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Inguscio 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Inguscio 2003; Macosko and McCarroll 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Macosko and McCarroll 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Barabash et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng.
ISSN (print)1090-0241
ISSN (online)1943-5606
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
General Environmental Science

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