How to format your references using the Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2004. “Bricks and mortar. Switzerland switches on supercomputers.” Nature, 429 (6989): 326.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, G., and J. Yard. 2008. “Quantum communication with zero-capacity channels.” Science, 321 (5897): 1812–1815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xuereb, A., H. Ulbricht, and M. Paternostro. 2013. “Optomechanical interface for probing matter-wave coherence.” Sci. Rep., 3: 3378.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vita, H., S. Böttcher, K. Horn, E. N. Voloshina, R. E. Ovcharenko, T. Kampen, A. Thissen, and Y. S. Dedkov. 2014. “Understanding the origin of band gap formation in graphene on metals: graphene on Cu/Ir(111).” Sci. Rep., 4: 5704.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gramß, T., S. Bornholdt, M. Groß, M. Mitchell, and T. Pellizzari. 2005. Non-Standard Computation. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Gollmann, D., J.-L. Lanet, and J. Iguchi-Cartigny (Eds.). 2010. Smart Card Research and Advanced Application: 9th IFIP WG 8.8/11.2 International Conference, CARDIS 2010, Passau, Germany, April 14-16, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shiver, W., and M. Perla. 2016. “Treating Your Sales Transformation Like an Internal Sale.” 7 Steps to Sales Force Transformation: Driving Sustainable Change in Your Organization, M. Perla, ed., 61–79. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016. “House Science Committee Tweets Breitbart Article Denouncing Climate Change.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service: Pseudorabies in Swine and Payment of Indemnity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aramphongphun, C. 2006. “In-mold Coating of Thermoplastic and Composite Parts: Microfluidics and Rheology.” Doctoral dissertation. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wallace, N. 2016. “The Minivan vs. the Maserati.” New York Times, September 26, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Smith and Yard 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Yard 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Vita et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng.
ISSN (print)1090-0241
ISSN (online)1943-5606
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
General Environmental Science

Other styles