How to format your references using the Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barron, M. 2008. “Science & music: raising the roof.” Nature, 453 (7197): 859–860.
A journal article with 2 authors
Debenedetti, P. G., and S. Sarupria. 2009. “Chemistry. Hydrate molecular ballet.” Science, 326 (5956): 1070–1071.
A journal article with 3 authors
Powell, M. D., P. J. Vickery, and T. A. Reinhold. 2003. “Reduced drag coefficient for high wind speeds in tropical cyclones.” Nature, 422 (6929): 279–283.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chan, H. F., Y. Zhang, Y.-P. Ho, Y.-L. Chiu, Y. Jung, and K. W. Leong. 2013. “Rapid formation of multicellular spheroids in double-emulsion droplets with controllable microenvironment.” Sci. Rep., 3: 3462.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koperski, J. 2014. The Physics of Theism. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gaul, W., A. Geyer-Schulz, Y. Baba, and A. Okada (Eds.). 2014. German-Japanese Interchange of Data Analysis Results. Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Eyden, B., and S. S. Banerjee. 2013. “Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone, and Other Mesenchymal Tumours.” The Ultrastructure of Human Tumours: Applications in Diagnosis and Research, S. S. Banerjee, Y. Ru, and P. Liberski, eds., 177–362. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2015. “Check Out An Old Toothbrush Vs A New Toothbrush Under An Electron Microscope.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Screening Partnership Program: TSA Should Issue More Guidance to Airports and Monitor Private versus Federal Screener Performance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cornejo, V. M. 2010. “Teachers’ perceptions about promoting mental health in the classroom.” Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. 2017. “Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman.” New York Times, July 7, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barron 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Barron 2008; Debenedetti and Sarupria 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Debenedetti and Sarupria 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Chan et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng.
ISSN (print)1090-0241
ISSN (online)1943-5606
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
General Environmental Science

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