How to format your references using the Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zahnle, K. 2001. “Decline and fall of the empire.” Nature, 412 (6843): 209–213.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lam, I., and S. Keeney. 2015. “Nonparadoxical evolutionary stability of the recombination initiation landscape in yeast.” Science, 350 (6263): 932–937.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martens, J. A., L. Laprade, and F. Winston. 2004. “Intergenic transcription is required to repress the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SER3 gene.” Nature, 429 (6991): 571–574.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith, K. F., M. Behrens, L. M. Schloegel, N. Marano, S. Burgiel, and P. Daszak. 2009. “Ecology. Reducing the risks of the wildlife trade.” Science, 324 (5927): 594–595.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McMaster, M. C. 2005. LC/MS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nourbakhsh, S. A., B. A. Jaumotte, C. Hirsch, and H. B. Parizi (Eds.). 2008. Turbopumps and Pumping Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Naimpally, A., and K. S. Rosselot. 2013. “Solid Waste.” Environmental Engineering: Review for the Professional Engineering Examination, K. S. Rosselot, ed., 99–115. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016. “Is There Life Through The Looking-Glass? The Riddle Of Life’s Single-Handedness.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Consolidated Education Planning: State Education Agencies’ Implementation of Consolidated Planning at the Local Level. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Underwood, V. L. 2010. “The effect of guided reading instruction on reading achievement.” Doctoral dissertation. St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., and N. Wingfield. 2017. “Amazon Suspends Executive Accused of Sex Harassment.” New York Times, October 13, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zahnle 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lam and Keeney 2015; Zahnle 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lam and Keeney 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng.
ISSN (print)1090-0241
ISSN (online)1943-5606
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
General Environmental Science

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