How to format your references using the Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lifschitz, V. (2011). “John McCarthy (1927-2011).” Nature, 480(7375), 40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fedorka, K. M., and Mousseau, T. A. (2004). “Female mating bias results in conflicting sex-specific offspring fitness.” Nature, 429(6987), 65–67.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, X., Zheng, X., and You, H. (2010). “Exceptional dinosaur fossils show ontogenetic development of early feathers.” Nature, 464(7293), 1338–1341.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Daley, D. O., Rapp, M., Granseth, E., Melén, K., Drew, D., and von Heijne, G. (2005). “Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5726), 1321–1323.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chan, N. H., and Wong, H. Y. (2013). Handbook of Financial Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Han, Y.-S., and Salomaa, K. (Eds.). (2016). Implementation and Application of Automata: 21st International Conference, CIAA 2016, Seoul, South Korea, July 19-22, 2016, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Alperson-Afil, N., and Goren-Inbar, N. (2010). “Discussion and Conclusions.” The Acheulian Site of Gesher Benot Ya’aqov Volume II: Ancient Flames and Controlled Use of Fire, Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology, N. Goren-Inbar, ed., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 73–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016). “47 Years On, Relive The Apollo 11 Moon Landing Through These Historic Photos.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <> (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Commercial Motor Vehicles: Effectiveness of Actions Being Taken to Improve Motor Carrier Safety Is Unknown. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watkins, J. J. (2017). “Victor Echo Tango (VET) Support Services Inc.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). “Dodgers’ Turner Delivers Decisive Final Blow in a Battle of Bullpens.” New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lifschitz 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Fedorka and Mousseau 2004; Lifschitz 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fedorka and Mousseau 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Daley et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng.
ISSN (print)1090-0241
ISSN (online)1943-5606
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
General Environmental Science

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