How to format your references using the Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quackenbush, J. (2003). “Genomics. Microarrays--guilt by association.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5643), 240–241.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones, R. H., and Flynn, K. J. (2005). “Nutritional status and diet composition affect the value of diatoms as copepod prey.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5714), 1457–1459.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohmoto, H., Watanabe, Y., and Kumazawa, K. (2004). “Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before approximately 1.8 billion years ago.” Nature, 429(6990), 395–399.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ma, T.-B., Wang, L.-F., Hu, Y.-Z., Li, X., and Wang, H. (2014). “A shear localization mechanism for lubricity of amorphous carbon materials.” Scientific reports, 4, 3662.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wernecke, R. (2003). Industrielle Feuchtemessung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Lasjaunias, P. (2006). Surgical Neuroangiography: Clinical and Interventional Aspects in Children. (K. G. T. Brugge and A. Berenstein, eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bennett, L. (2016). “Drug Delivery to Specific Compartments of the Eye.” Ocular Drug Delivery: Advances, Challenges and Applications, R. T. Addo, ed., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 37–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015). “Awesome Time-Lapse Of Hyenas Devouring A Buffalo Carcass.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <> (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Reevaluation Needed of Educational Assistance for Institutionalized Neglected or Delinquent Children. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldberg, A. L. (2017). “The Seriously Ill Patient’s Broken Care Continuum: One Community’s Action Response.” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Light, A. (2012). “Guardian Anger.” New York Times, MM14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quackenbush 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Jones and Flynn 2005; Quackenbush 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jones and Flynn 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng.
ISSN (print)1090-0241
ISSN (online)1943-5606
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
General Environmental Science

Other styles