How to format your references using the Studies in Communication Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Communication Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2001). Funding fears spark Italian protests. Nature, 414(6862), 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smetacek, V., & Mechsner, F. (2004). Making sense. Nature, 432(7013), 21.
A journal article with 3 authors
Locher, K. P., Bass, R. B., & Rees, D. C. (2003). Structural biology. Breaching the barrier. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5633), 603–604.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, C.-H., Budas, G. R., Churchill, E. N., Disatnik, M.-H., Hurley, T. D., & Mochly-Rosen, D. (2008). Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 reduces ischemic damage to the heart. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5895), 1493–1495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Giesbrecht, F. G., & Gumpertz, M. L. (2005). Planning, Construction, and Statistical Analysis of Comparative Experiments: Giesbrecht/Comparative Experiments. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Irwin, L. N. (2011). Cosmic Biology: How Life Could Evolve on Other Worlds (D. Schulze-Makuch, Ed.). Praxis.
A chapter in an edited book
AbuRahma, A. F. (2007). Overview of Cerebrovascular Disease. In A. F. AbuRahma & J. J. Bergan (Eds.), Noninvasive Vascular Diagnosis: A Practical Guide to Therapy (pp. 33–49). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Communication Sciences.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 28). Is There Any Way To Tell If The FBI Have Read Your Email? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Intercollegiate Athletics: Recent Trends in Teams and Participants in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports (GAO-07-535). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens, A. H. (2012). William Harold Fletcher (b. 1923): His life and career in music education at Oklahoma Christian University, 1950–2012 [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo, K. (2017, June 21). For Dianne Whelan, No Trail Is Too Long or Hard. New York Times, TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2001; Smetacek & Mechsner, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smetacek & Mechsner, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Locher et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chen et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Communication Sciences
AbbreviationStud. Commun. Sci.
ISSN (print)1424-4896

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