How to format your references using the Frontiers in Bioscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Bioscience (FBS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. PF Sullivan. Genetics of disease: Associations with depression. Nature 523, 539–540 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
1. ES Zavaleta; KB Hulvey. Realistic species losses disproportionately reduce grassland resistance to biological invaders. Science 306, 1175–1177 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
1. T Reichenbach; M Mobilia; E Frey. Mobility promotes and jeopardizes biodiversity in rock-paper-scissors games. Nature 448, 1046–1049 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. PL Chase-Lansdale; RA Moffitt; BJ Lohman; AJ Cherlin; RL Coley; LD Pittman; J Roff; E Votruba-Drzal. Mothers’ transitions from welfare to work and the well-being of preschoolers and adolescents. Science 299, 1548–1552 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. R Möller; H Pöter; K Schwarze. Planen und Bauen mit Trapezprofilen und Sandwichelementen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2011)
An edited book
1. Eds: I Gohberg; D Alpay; J Arazy; A Atzmon; JA Ball; A Ben-Artzi; H Bercovici; A Böttcher; K Clancey; LA Coburn; KR Davidson; RG Douglas; A Dijksma; H Dym; PA Fuhrmann; B Gramsch; G Heinig; JA Helton; MA Kaashoek; HG Kaper; ST Kuroda; P Lancaster; LE Lerer; B Mityagin; VV Peller; L Rodman; J Rovnyak; DE Sarason; IM Spitkovsky; S Treil; H Upmeier; SM Verduyn Lunel; D Voiculescu; H Widom; D Xia; D Yafaev; MA Kaashoek; S Seatzu; C van der Mee. Recent Advances in Operator Theory and its Applications: The Israel Gohberg Anniversary Volume. Birkhäuser, Basel (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
1. G Longo; M Montévil. Symmetry and Symmetry Breakings in Physics. In: Perspectives on Organisms: Biological time, Symmetries and Singularities. M Montévil, ed. , Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Bioscience.

Blog post
1. J Davis. Researchers Have Found The Bacteria Responsible For The Great Plague Of London,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Opportunity For Savings In Space Programs By Reevaluating Needs Before Buying Facilities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1968)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. DL Sutton. Alumni perceptions of the role of field education in professional preparation, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. K Crow. Time for Recalling the Departed And Reuniting the Long-Lost Related, (2001)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Bioscience
ISSN (print)1945-0494
ISSN (online)1945-0508

Other styles