How to format your references using the Frontiers in Bioscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Bioscience (FBS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. L Cluver. Children of the AIDS pandemic. Nature 474, 27–29 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
1. S Sandeep; RS Ajayamohan. Origin of cold bias over the Arabian Sea in Climate Models. Sci Rep 4, 6403 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
1. FS Collins; M Morgan; A Patrinos. The Human Genome Project: lessons from large-scale biology. Science 300, 286–290 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. M Sato; K Kojima; C Sakuma; M Murakami; Y Tamada; H Kitani. Production of scFv-conjugated affinity silk film and its application to a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sci Rep 4, 4080 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. D Chowdhury; D Stauffer. Principles of Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG (2005)
An edited book
1. RE Bradley. Cauchy’s Cours d’analyse: An Annotated Translation. Springer, New York, NY (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
1. JA Román; S Rodríguez; F de la Prieta. Improving the Distribution of Services in MAS. In: Highlights of Practical Applications of Scalable Multi-Agent Systems. The PAAMS Collection: International Workshops of PAAMS 2016, Sevilla, Spain, June 1-3, 2016. Proceedings. J Bajo, MJ Escalona, S Giroux, P Hoffa-Dąbrowska, V Julián, P Novais, N Sánchez-Pi, R Unland, R Azambuja-Silveira, eds. , Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Bioscience.

Blog post
1. J Davis. Myanmar Puts The Management Of Three Marine Reserves Into The Hands Of Local Communities,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Older Driver Safety: Survey of States on Their Implementation of Federal Highway Administration Recommendations and Guidelines (GAO-07-517SP), an E-supplement to GAO-07-413. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. T Bockler. Legal advocacy program for low-income children with disabilities: A grant proposal, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. J Markoff. Creating a Safer Phone Battery (This One Won’t Catch Fire), (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Bioscience
ISSN (print)1945-0494
ISSN (online)1945-0508

Other styles