How to format your references using the Frontiers in Bioscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Bioscience (FBS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. D Sarewitz. The voice of science: let’s agree to disagree. Nature 478, 7 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
1. FB de Waal; ML Berger. Payment for labour in monkeys. Nature 404, 563 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
1. T Zhou; T Wang; JGN Garcia. Expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase-influenced genes predicts recurrence-free survival in lung and breast cancers. Sci Rep 4, 6107 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. L Pasqualucci; P Neumeister; T Goossens; G Nanjangud; RS Chaganti; R Küppers; R Dalla-Favera. Hypermutation of multiple proto-oncogenes in B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphomas. Nature 412, 341–346 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. RS Blicq; LA Moretto. Writing Reports to Get Results. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA (2015)
An edited book
1. Eds: L-P Kamolz; MG Jeschke; RE Horch; M Küntscher; P Brychta. Handbook of Burns: Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Volume 2. Springer, Vienna (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
1. F Hirth. Stem Cells and Asymmetric Cell Division. In: Regenerative Medicine: From Protocol to Patient. G Steinhoff, ed. , Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Bioscience.

Blog post
1. D Andrew. Snake Found In Bottled Water,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Rail Transit: Observations on FTA’s State Safety Oversight Program and Potential Change in Oversight Role. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2009)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. LJ Jones. From Corbin and Hillman to Dionysos: The Partial Unveiling of Psyche’s Stage, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. MJ de la MERCED. Lattice to Seek Trump’s Ear for Chinese-Backed Deal, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Bioscience
ISSN (print)1945-0494
ISSN (online)1945-0508

Other styles