How to format your references using the Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Stone AJ. Intermolecular potentials. Science 2008;321:787–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Gruber N, Galloway JN. An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle. Nature 2008;451:293–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Johnson SC, Rabinovitch PS, Kaeberlein M. mTOR is a key modulator of ageing and age-related disease. Nature 2013;493:338–45.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Sudarsan N, Lee ER, Weinberg Z, Moy RH, Kim JN, Link KH, et al. Riboswitches in eubacteria sense the second messenger cyclic di-GMP. Science 2008;321:411–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Ciobanu CV, Wang C-Z, Ho K-M. Atomic Structure Prediction of Nanostructures, Clusters and Surfaces. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Hajek A, Lohmeier C, Pentzold C, editors. Memory in a Mediated World: Remembrance and Reconstruction. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Dijkstra M. Constraining Reionization with Lyα Emitting Galaxies. In: Mesinger A, editor. Understanding the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization: Challenges and Progress, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 145–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structures.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. Scientists Pinpoint Genes That Allow Vultures To Eat Rotting Meat. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/scientists-pin-point-genes-allow-vultures-eat-rotting-meat/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. The Johnstown Area Flood of 1977: A Case Study for the Future. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Sullivan TJ. Molecular Ecology, Disease Ecology, and Candidate Genes for Pathogen Resistance in the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
McKINLEY JC Jr. 3 Are Charged With Selling Ivory Objects Despite Ban. New York Times 2016:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStructures
ISSN (print)2352-0124
Scope

Other styles