How to format your references using the Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Haslam M. Evolutionary biology: Dating chimpanzees. Nature 2014;508:322–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Mayer AL, Khalyani AH. Ecology. Grass trumps trees with fire. Science 2011;334:188–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Taggart AKP, Teng S-C, Zakian VA. Est1p as a cell cycle-regulated activator of telomere-bound telomerase. Science 2002;297:1023–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Raisbeck GM, Yiou F, Cattani O, Jouzel J. 10Be evidence for the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Nature 2006;444:82–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Tms. Engineering Solutions for Sustainability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Chandrappa R. Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Locher P, Haenni R. Verifiable Internet Elections with Everlasting Privacy and Minimal Trust. In: Haenni R, Koenig RE, Wikström D, editors. E-Voting and Identity: 5th International Conference, VoteID 2015, Bern, Switzerland, September 2-4, 2015, Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 74–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structures.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. BPA Alternative May Not Be Any Safer Than BPA for Embryonic Brain. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/bpa-alternative-may-not-be-any-safer-bpa-embryonic-brain/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: IRS Could Have Avoided Successful Protests of Major Computer Procurement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Paik Y. Redefining multidisciplinary teams: An institutional approach. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Olmsted SA. CITY REPORTS.; A Record of Their Appearance and of Comments Upon Them. New York Times 1935:BOOKS16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStructures
ISSN (print)2352-0124
Scope

Other styles