How to format your references using the Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heald R. Cell biology. Serving up a plate of chromosomes. Science 2006;311:343–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holman MJ, Murray NW. The use of transit timing to detect terrestrial-mass extrasolar planets. Science 2005;307:1288–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grünwald D, Singer RH, Rout M. Nuclear export dynamics of RNA-protein complexes. Nature 2011;475:333–41.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boulanger MJ, Chow D-C, Brevnova EE, Garcia KC. Hexameric structure and assembly of the interleukin-6/IL-6 alpha-receptor/gp130 complex. Science 2003;300:2101–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Owen JS, Fiedler-Kelly J. Introduction to Population Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Analysis with Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Ozaki Y, Kawata S, editors. Far- and Deep-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuczaj SA, Highfill LE, Makecha RN, Byerly HC. Why Do Dolphins Smile? A Comparative Perspective on Dolphin Emotions and Emotional Expressions. In: Watanabe S, Kuczaj S, editors. Emotions of Animals and Humans: Comparative Perspectives, Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2012, p. 63–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structures.

Blog post
Andrew E. Experimental Cholesterol Drug Shows Potential to Fight Breast Cancer. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Can the Federal Communications Commission Successfully Implement Its Computer II Decision? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lauper AR. Effects of leadership training and networking opportunities on professional advancement: A quantitative study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fink S. Even Nightmares Are Classified. New York Times 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStructures
ISSN (print)2352-0124

Other styles