How to format your references using the Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Wang Q. China has the capacity to lead in carbon trading. Nature 2013;493:273.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Ghabrial AS, Krasnow MA. Social interactions among epithelial cells during tracheal branching morphogenesis. Nature 2006;441:746–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Preis T, Moat HS, Stanley HE. Quantifying trading behavior in financial markets using Google Trends. Sci Rep 2013;3:1684.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Corma A, Nemeth LT, Renz M, Valencia S. Sn-zeolite beta as a heterogeneous chemoselective catalyst for Baeyer-Villiger oxidations. Nature 2001;412:423–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Stamp M. Information Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
[1]
Choukr-Allah R, Ragab R, Rodriguez-Clemente R, editors. Integrated Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean Region: Dialogue towards new strategy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Molodikova I, Makhrova A. Urbanization patterns in Russia in the post-Soviet era. In: Stanilov K, editor. The Post-Socialist City: Urban Form and Space Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe after Socialism, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007, p. 53–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structures.

Blog post
[1]
Luntz S. Climate Change Took Away Pterosaurs’ Teeth. IFLScience 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Modernization Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Harris SK. Dissecting the Disappearing Act: Discussing the Dissipation of Black Male Role Models in Black Communities. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Sisario B. Another Exclusive Yields No. 1 Album. New York Times 2016:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStructures
ISSN (print)2352-0124
Scope

Other styles