How to format your references using the BJOG citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BJOG. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dresser R. Weighing the benefits of new Alzheimer’s treatments. Science. 2000 Aug 11;289(5481):869b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dennell R, Roebroeks W. An Asian perspective on early human dispersal from Africa. Nature. 2005 Dec 22;438(7071):1099–104.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saito C, Shinzawa K, Tsujimoto Y. Synchronized necrotic death of attached hepatocytes mediated via gap junctions. Sci Rep. 2014 Jun 4;4:5169.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kandada ARS, Grancini G, Petrozza A, Perissinotto S, Fazzi D, Raavi SSK, et al. Ultrafast energy transfer in ultrathin organic donor/acceptor blend. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2073.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lui SH. Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Oppen MJH van, Lough JM, editors. Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. XIII, 178 p. (Ecological Studies; vol. 205).
A chapter in an edited book
Zhu X, Song B, Ni Y, Ren Y, Li R. Mobile Internet—From PC-Based Internet to PC-Based Internet and Mobile Internet. In: Song B, Ni Y, Ren Y, Li R, editors. Business Trends in the Digital Era: Evolution of Theories and Applications. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 63–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BJOG.

Blog post
Andrews R. Was Japan’s 6.9M Earthquake Linked To The 2011 Megathrust Disaster? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. An Approach to the Audit of Research and Development Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1969 Jan. Report No.: 091023.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ball-Miles NM. The relationship between witnessing verbal marital conflict as a child and the behavioral anger responses in adulthood [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. Tomorrow’s Marquee Names. New York Times. 2017 Sep 6;AR26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBJOG
ISSN (print)1470-0328
ISSN (online)1471-0528
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology

Other styles