How to format your references using the BJOG citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BJOG. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brower V. Epigenetics: Unravelling the cancer code. Nature. 2011 Mar 24;471(7339):S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yethiraj A, van Blaaderen A. A colloidal model system with an interaction tunable from hard sphere to soft and dipolar. Nature. 2003 Jan 30;421(6922):513–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Back JM, McCue SW, Moroney TJ. Including nonequilibrium interface kinetics in a continuum model for melting nanoscaled particles. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 17;4:7066.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jokat W, Ritzmann O, Schmidt-Aursch MC, Drachev S, Gauger S, Snow J. Geophysical evidence for reduced melt production on the Arctic ultraslow Gakkel mid-ocean ridge. Nature. 2003 Jun 26;423(6943):962–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jamison DC. Perl Programming for Biologists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Wiak S, Napieralska-Juszczak E, editors. Computational Methods for the Innovative Design of Electrical Devices. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XV, 370 p. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 327).
A chapter in an edited book
Slota M, Baláž M, Leite J. On Supporting Strong and Default Negation in Answer-Set Program Updates. In: Bazzan ALC, Pichara K, editors. Advances in Artificial Intelligence -- IBERAMIA 2014: 14th Ibero-American Conference on AI, Santiago de Chile, Chile, November 24-27, 2014, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 41–53. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BJOG.

Blog post
Andrew E. Certain Traits Could Come From Our Mother’s Bacteria, Rather Than Our Genes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improper Payments: Weaknesses in USAID’s and NASA’s Implementation of the Improper Payments Information Act and Recovery Auditing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Nov. Report No.: GAO-08-77.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia M. A.R.T. / Atmospheric. Retail. Therapy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pérez-Peña R, Schmidt MS. Woman Is Beheaded in Attack at Oklahoma Food Plant. New York Times. 2014 Sep 27;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBJOG
ISSN (print)1470-0328
ISSN (online)1471-0528
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology

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