How to format your references using the BJOG citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BJOG. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lidin S. Imaging techniques. Mapping bond orientations with polarized x-rays. Science. 2014 May 30;344(6187):969–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu-Baer F, Baer R. Effect of DNA damage on a BRCA1 complex. Nature. 2001 Nov 1;414(6859):36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schreiber RD, Old LJ, Smyth MJ. Cancer immunoediting: integrating immunity’s roles in cancer suppression and promotion. Science. 2011 Mar 25;331(6024):1565–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yao G, Luo Z, Pan F, Xu W, Feng YP, Wang X-S. Evolution of topological surface states in antimony ultra-thin films. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Christophers B. Banking Across Boundaries. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Chavet C, Coussy P, editors. Advanced Hardware Design for Error Correcting Codes. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. IX, 192 p. 81 illus., 25 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Sherman CH, Butler JL. Projector Arrays. In: Butler JL, editor. Transducers and Arrays for Underwater Sound. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. p. 213–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BJOG.

Blog post
Andrew E. Do Periods Really Make Women Moody? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information on Organization and Functions of the Indian Education Resources Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Feb. Report No.: CED-78-57.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Evans AM. Long-Term Sustainability of Surgical Operational Improvements Post Consultancy: A Multiple Case Study Analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Montgomery D, Fernandez M, Joseph Y. Journey Fatal for 9 Migrants Found in Truck in a San Antonio Parking Lot. New York Times. 2017 Jul 23;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBJOG
ISSN (print)1470-0328
ISSN (online)1471-0528
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology

Other styles