How to format your references using the ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis R (2004) Developing themes. Nature 430:382–383
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwefel HGL, Türeci HE (2015) Optics. A chaotic approach clears up imaging. Science 348:189–190
A journal article with 3 authors
Lambert JB, Gurusamy-Thangavelu SA, Ma K (2010) The silicate-mediated formose reaction: bottom-up synthesis of sugar silicates. Science 327:984–986
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang B, Gao L, Gao Y, et al (2014) Controllability and observability analysis for vertex domination centrality in directed networks. Sci Rep 4:5399

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bradley D (2015) Managing Minor Musculoskeletal Injuries and Conditions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Meško G, Dimitrijević D, Fields CB (eds) (2011) Understanding and Managing Threats to the Environment in South Eastern Europe. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Maricau E, Gielen G (2013) Background on IC Reliability Simulation. In: Gielen G (ed) Analog IC Reliability in Nanometer CMOS. Springer, New York, NY, pp 79–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) For Ocean Animals, ‘Death By Plastic’ Could Be Occurring More Frequently. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1967) Comments on Legality of NASA Contracts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hess JP (2012) Exploring the Challenges of Training and Developing Millennials in the Business Environment. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2016) Theater; Dancer Plays a Dancer. New York Times AR4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lewis 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lewis 2004; Schwefel and Türeci 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwefel and Türeci 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
AbbreviationAtten. Defic. Hyperact. Disord.
ISSN (print)1866-6116
ISSN (online)1866-6647
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Psychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

Other styles