How to format your references using the Structure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadis, S. (2000). Astronomers reveal the secrets of the name game. Nature 406, 819.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vinnikov, K.Y., and Grody, N.C. (2003). Global warming trend of mean tropospheric temperature observed by satellites. Science 302, 269–272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu, L., Koymen, A.R., and Mohanty, S.K. (2014). Crystalline magnetic carbon nanoparticle assisted photothermal delivery into cells using CW near-infrared laser beam. Sci. Rep. 4, 5106.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Law, R.H.P., Lukoyanova, N., Voskoboinik, I., Caradoc-Davies, T.T., Baran, K., Dunstone, M.A., D’Angelo, M.E., Orlova, E.V., Coulibaly, F., Verschoor, S., et al. (2010). The structural basis for membrane binding and pore formation by lymphocyte perforin. Nature 468, 447–451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bagdonavičius, V., Julius, K., and Nikulin, M.S. (2011). Non-parametric Tests for Complete Data (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc).
An edited book
(2014). Transnational Evidence and Multicultural Inquiries in Europe: Developments in EU Legislation and New Challenges for Human Rights-Oriented Criminal Investigations in Cross-border Cases (Cham: Springer International Publishing).
A chapter in an edited book
Gong, J., Markidis, S., Schliephake, M., Laure, E., Henningson, D., Schlatter, P., Peplinski, A., Hart, A., Doleschal, J., Henty, D., et al. (2015). Nek5000 with OpenACC. In Solving Software Challenges for Exascale: International Conference on Exascale Applications and Software, EASC 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, April 2-3, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, S. Markidis, and E. Laure, eds. (Cham: Springer International Publishing), pp. 57–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structure.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015). Why Do All Airplane Windows Have A Tiny Hole In Them? (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006). No Child Left Behind Act: States Face Challenges Measuring Academic Growth That Education’s Initiatives May Help Address (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldgof, G.M. (2017). Drug Target Discovery Using Designer Drug Sensitive Yeast. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2001). Russians Treat Chechen Children To a Summer Vacation From War. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nadis, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Nadis, 2000; Vinnikov and Grody, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vinnikov and Grody, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Law et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructure
ISSN (print)0969-2126
ISSN (online)1878-4186
ScopeMolecular Biology
Structural Biology

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