How to format your references using the Structure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walter, M.J. (2000). Earth science. A shear pathway to the core. Nature 403, 839–840.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwab, M.E., and Buchli, A.D. (2012). Drug research: plug the real brain drain. Nature 483, 267–268.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amunts, A., Drory, O., and Nelson, N. (2007). The structure of a plant photosystem I supercomplex at 3.4 A resolution. Nature 447, 58–63.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sam, M., Vora, S., Malnic, B., Ma, W., Novotny, M.V., and Buck, L.B. (2001). Neuropharmacology. Odorants may arouse instinctive behaviours. Nature 412, 142.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (2015). Guidelines for Defining Process Safety Competency Requirements (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
(2008). Data and Applications Security XXII: 22nd Annual IFIP WG 11.3 Working Conference on Data and Applications Security London, UK, July 13-16, 2008 Proceedings (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Stepien, A., Koivurova, T., Gremsperger, A., and Niemi, H. (2014). Arctic Indigenous Peoples and the Challenge of Climate Change. In Arctic Marine Governance: Opportunities for Transatlantic Cooperation, E. Tedsen, S. Cavalieri, and R.A. Kraemer, eds. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), pp. 71–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structure.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). The Best Planet Duo Of 2015 - Venus And Jupiter (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Agencies Need to Plan for Transition and Manage Security Risks (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wood, E.D. (2017). A Study of the Effect of Grouping Students and Results on the Ohio Achievement Assessment for Reading. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017). Robert Caro Nears End Of Research on L.B.J. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walter, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schwab and Buchli, 2012; Walter, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwab and Buchli, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Sam et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructure
ISSN (print)0969-2126
ISSN (online)1878-4186
ScopeMolecular Biology
Structural Biology

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