How to format your references using the Structure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adams, W.M. (2014). Conservation. The value of valuing nature. Science 346, 549–551.
A journal article with 2 authors
Normile, D., and Kerr, R.A. (2011). Breakthrough of the year. A disaster and a warning--but of what? Science 334, 1634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gershenfeld, N., Samouhos, S., and Nordman, B. (2010). Engineering. Intelligent infrastructure for energy efficiency. Science 327, 1086–1088.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Karnoub, A.E., Dash, A.B., Vo, A.P., Sullivan, A., Brooks, M.W., Bell, G.W., Richardson, A.L., Polyak, K., Tubo, R., and Weinberg, R.A. (2007). Mesenchymal stem cells within tumour stroma promote breast cancer metastasis. Nature 449, 557–563.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mackenzie, B., Njikizana, T., Coetsee, D., Chamboko, R., Colyvas, B., Hanekom, B., and Selbst, E. (2014). 2014 Interpretation and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc).
An edited book
Bastin, G. (2016). Stability and Boundary Stabilization of 1-D Hyperbolic Systems (Cham: Springer International Publishing).
A chapter in an edited book
Goodarzi, E., Ziaei, M., and Hosseinipour, E.Z. (2014). Optimization Analysis Using LINGO and MATLAB. In Introduction to Optimization Analysis in Hydrosystem Engineering, M. Ziaei, and E.Z. Hosseinipour, eds. (Cham: Springer International Publishing), pp. 149–193.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structure.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Physicists Prove ‘Quantum Spookiness’ And Start Chasing Schrödinger’s Cat (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Telecommunications: Market Developments in the Global Satellite Services Industry and the Implementation of the ORBIT Act (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilbert, S.A. (2017). Succession Planning Relating to the Millennial Generation in Private Four-Year Universities. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008). Justices Take Up Battle Over Exxon Valdez Damages. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adams, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Adams, 2014; Normile and Kerr, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Normile and Kerr, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Karnoub et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructure
ISSN (print)0969-2126
ISSN (online)1878-4186
ScopeMolecular Biology
Structural Biology

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