How to format your references using the Lasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, I.: Chemistry. Single-molecule catalysis. Science. 315, 470–471 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Stebbins, C.E., Galán, J.E.: Maintenance of an unfolded polypeptide by a cognate chaperone in bacterial type III secretion. Nature. 414, 77–81 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe, K.N., Taeb, M., Okusu, H.: Biotechnology. Japanese controversies over transgenic crop regulation. Science. 305, 1572 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Qi, W., Bi, J., Zhang, X., Wang, J., Wang, J., Liu, P., Li, Z., Wu, W.: Damaging effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on pregnant mice with different pregnancy times. Sci. Rep. 4, 4352 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCormick, K., Salcedo, J.: SPSS reg Statistics for Data Analysis and Visualization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana (2017)
An edited book
Lindert, P., Verkoren, O. eds: Decentralized Development in Latin America: Experiences in Local Governance and Local Development. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Aiyer, A.S., Alvisi, L., Bazzi, R.A.: Bounded Wait-Free Implementation of Optimally Resilient Byzantine Storage Without (Unproven) Cryptographic Assumptions. In: Pelc, A. (ed.) Distributed Computing: 21st International Symposium, DISC 2007, Lemesos, Cyprus, September 24-26, 2007. Proceedings. pp. 7–19. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Man Swims Near Shark in Sydney Harbor: Real or Hoax?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: [Response to Request for Comments on Federal Contribution to Corporation for Public Broadcasting]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1986)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moon, M.M.: The needs of Korean-American and Korean families of children with disabilities, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing
AbbreviationLasers Manuf. Mater. Process.
ISSN (print)2196-7229
ISSN (online)2196-7237

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