How to format your references using the Brain Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodenough JB (2000) Oxide-ion conductors by design. Nature 404:821, 823
A journal article with 2 authors
Oliveri P, Davidson EH (2007) Development. Built to run, not fail. Science 315:1510–1511
A journal article with 3 authors
Aurelio O, Hall DH, Hobert O (2002) Immunoglobulin-domain proteins required for maintenance of ventral nerve cord organization. Science 295:686–690
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lim MY, Rho M, Song Y-M, et al (2014) Stability of gut enterotypes in Korean monozygotic twins and their association with biomarkers and diet. Sci Rep 4:7348

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (2014) MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2014. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Bungenberg M, Herrmann C, Krajewski M, Terhechte JP (2016) European Yearbook of International Economic Law 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Andrade-Cetto J, Sanfeliu A (2006) Simultaneous Localization, Control and Mapping. In: Sanfeliu A (ed) Environment Learning for Indoor Mobile Robots: A Stochastic State Estimation Approach to Simultaneous Localization and Map Building. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 107–118

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Informatics.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Pluto’s Interaction With The Solar Wind Is Completely Unique. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Human Services Integration: Results of a GAO Cosponsored Conference on Modernizing Information Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Russo DA (2010) Cancer: Modeling the distribution of sizes of detectable metastases. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S (2002) Adaptive Sports Stoke the Competitive Spirit. New York Times D8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Informatics
AbbreviationBrain Inform.
ISSN (print)2198-4018
ISSN (online)2198-4026

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