How to format your references using the Brain Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott A (2000) Art imitating high-energy physics. Nature 404:219
A journal article with 2 authors
Stevens RC, Wilson IA (2001) Tech.Sight. Industrializing structural biology. Science 293:519–520
A journal article with 3 authors
Hanna JB, Schmitt D, Griffin TM (2008) The energetic cost of climbing in primates. Science 320:898
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Morito D, Nishikawa K, Hoseki J, et al (2014) Moyamoya disease-associated protein mysterin/RNF213 is a novel AAA+ ATPase, which dynamically changes its oligomeric state. Sci Rep 4:4442

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Darbyshire P, Hampton D (2012) Hedge Fund Modelling and Analysis Using Excel and VBA. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Champagnat J, Denavit-Saubié M, Fortin G, et al (2005) Post-Genomic Perspectives in Modeling and Control of Breathing. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Graham S (2011) School Racial/Ethnic Diversity and Disparities in Mental Health and Academic Outcomes. In: Carlo G, Crockett LJ, Carranza MA (eds) Health Disparities in Youth and Families: Research and Applications. Springer, New York, NY, pp 73–96

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Keep Fidgeting, It Might Cancel Out The Negative Effects Of Prolonged Sitting. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Aviation Safety: Commuter Airports Should Participate in the Airport Certification Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson DG (2012) An application of geotechnical techniques to quantitative regional slope stability analysis San Clemente, California. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir SM (2017) Doctor Storms Bronx Hospital In Fatal Attack. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Informatics
AbbreviationBrain Inform.
ISSN (print)2198-4018
ISSN (online)2198-4026

Other styles