How to format your references using the Brain Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crutzen PJ (2004) A late change to the programme. Nature 429:349
A journal article with 2 authors
Bonilla LL, Carpio A (2012) Materials science. Driving dislocations in graphene. Science 337:161–162
A journal article with 3 authors
Sadeghi O, Zakharov LN, Nyman M (2015) Crystal growth. Aqueous formation and manipulation of the iron-oxo Keggin ion. Science 347:1359–1362
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kim J-M, Jang H-J, Choi SY, et al (2014) DJ-1 contributes to adipogenesis and obesity-induced inflammation. Sci Rep 4:4805

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Runcie T, Dochtermann M (2013) Making Effective Business Decisions Using Microsoft Project. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Harrod RP (2014) Bioarchaeology of Climate Change and Violence: Ethical Considerations. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Reid A, Garrett E, Szreter S (2016) Residential Mobility and Child Mortality in Early Twentieth Century Belfast. In: Ramiro Fariñas D, Oris M (eds) New Approaches to Death in Cities during the Health Transition. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 55–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Informatics.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Archaeologists Discover Mayan Temple Has Two More Pyramids Inside It. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) ADP Systems: EEOC’s Charge Data System Contains Errors But System Satisfies Users. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Navarro C (2012) Advocacy services for high-risk Latino families caring for children with autism: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB (2016) How to Mend the Tax Code to Close Trump’s Loopholes. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Informatics
AbbreviationBrain Inform.
ISSN (print)2198-4018
ISSN (online)2198-4026

Other styles