How to format your references using the Brain Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig R (2000) COMPUTER SCIENCE: Flushing Out Nasty Viruses in the Balkans. Science 289:1863–1865
A journal article with 2 authors
Sipp D, Turner L (2012) Stem cells. U.S. regulation of stem cells as medical products. Science 338:1296–1297
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang XF, Chen TT, Zheng B (2014) Structure of local interactions in complex financial dynamics. Sci Rep 4:5321
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Blanchon P, Granados-Corea M, Abbey E, et al (2014) Postglacial fringing-reef to barrier-reef conversion on Tahiti links Darwin’s reef types. Sci Rep 4:4997

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drago C (2015) Implant Restorations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Parsons J, Chiu D (2014) Advances in Conceptual Modeling: ER 2013 Workshops, LSAWM, MoBiD, RIGiM, SeCoGIS, WISM, DaSeM, SCME, and PhD Symposium, Hong Kong, China, November 11-13, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Bonapace T, Mikic M, Trade and Investment Division, ESCAP (2007) Asia-Pacific Regionalism Quo Vadis? Charting the Territory for New Integration Routes. In: Lombaerde P de (ed) Multilateralism, Regionalism and Bilateralism in Trade and Investment: 2006 World Report on Regional Integration. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 75–98

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Informatics.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Mammal-Like Ancestors Were The First Venomous Beasties On Earth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Commercial Space Launches: FAA Should Update How It Assesses Federal Liability Risk. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberson KL (2017) Patient and Family Engagement Initiative: A Quantitative Causal-Comparative Analysis. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J, Apuzzo M (2015) Some Who Are Part of Problem in Ferguson Are Asked to Be Part of Solution. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Informatics
AbbreviationBrain Inform.
ISSN (print)2198-4018
ISSN (online)2198-4026

Other styles