How to format your references using the Stroke citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stroke. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Narlikar JV. Venture funding for new ideas. Nature. 2000;404:707.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rice WR, Friberg U. Genetics. Functionally degenerate--Y not so? Science. 2008;319:42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen M, Shavit R, Zalevsky Z. Observing optical plasmons on a single nanometer scale. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:4096.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu D, Wang X, Wang X, Tian W, Bando Y, Golberg D. Co3O4 nanocages with highly exposed {110} facets for high-performance lithium storage. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2543.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lakshminarayana B. Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer of Turbomachinery. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Pariatamby A, Tanaka M, editors. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Asia and the Pacific Islands: Challenges and Strategic Solutions. Singapore: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Grönlund Å, Susha I. A Communication Genre Perspective on e-Petitioning: The Case of the Citizens’ Initiative. In: Tambouris E, Macintosh A, Sæbø Ø, editors. Electronic Participation: 4th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2012, Kristiansand, Norway, September 3-5, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stroke.

Blog post
Andrew E. Awesome Time-Lapse Of Biggest Sunspot In 24 Years [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cost Overrun on the Aeropropulsion Systems Test Facility. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Neal L. What’s in Your Toolbox?: Examining Tool Choices at Two Middle and Late Woodland-Period Sites on Florida’s Central Gulf Coast. 2016;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. New Chief Portrays A Kinder, Gentler Uber. New York Times. 2017;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleStroke
ISSN (print)0039-2499
ISSN (online)1524-4628
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

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