How to format your references using the Stroke citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stroke. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kroes G-J. Frontiers in surface scattering simulations. Science. 2008;321:794–797.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vohr SH, Green RE. Development. Aneuploidy and mother’s genes. Science. 2015;348:180–181.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yohe G, Andronova N, Schlesinger M. Climate. To hedge or not against an uncertain climate future? Science. 2004;306:416–417.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dutton Z, Budde M, Slowe C, Hau LV. Observation of quantum shock waves created with ultra- compressed slow light pulses in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Science. 2001;293:663–668.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coenen T. Essentials of Corporate Fraud. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Polini M, Vignale G, Pellegrini V, Jain JK, editors. No-nonsense Physicist: An overview of Gabriele Giuliani’s work and life. Pisa: Scuola Normale Superiore; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bayan EM, Lupeiko TG, Pustovaya LE, Fedorenko AG. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide: The Influence of Process Parameters on the Structural, Size and Photocatalytic Properties. In: Parinov IA, Chang S-H, Topolov VY, editors. Advanced Materials: Manufacturing, Physics, Mechanics and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 51–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stroke.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Mystery Of Massive “Bubble” In The Night Sky Remains Unsolved [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Travel: Passenger Aircraft Services Annually Cost Taxpayers Millions More Than Commercial Airlines. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tahira A. Synthesis of Bivalent Organothiophosphate Inhibitors and Their Inhibition of Butyrylcholinesterase: Studies towards a Potential Treatment of Cognitive Loss Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Takeout That Moved On. New York Times. 2009;NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleStroke
ISSN (print)0039-2499
ISSN (online)1524-4628
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

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