How to format your references using the Stroke citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stroke. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schofield AJ. Physics. Two for the price of one. Science. 2007;315:945–946.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wagner WR, Griffith BP. Reconstructing the lung. Science. 2010;329:520–522.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wagemaker M, Kentgens APM, Mulder FM. Equilibrium lithium transport between nanocrystalline phases in intercalated TiO(2) anatase. Nature. 2002;418:397–399.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Maggio I, Holkers M, Liu J, Janssen JM, Chen X, Gonçalves MAFV. Adenoviral vector delivery of RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease complexes induces targeted mutagenesis in a diverse array of human cells. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:5105.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allan D, Bragg N. 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging Design and Evolution. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Johnson R. Nonautonomous Linear Hamiltonian Systems: Oscillation, Spectral Theory and Control. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Gulati K, Khatri SP. Accelerating Boolean Satisfiability on a Custom IC. In: Khatri SP, editor. Hardware Acceleration of EDA Algorithms: Custom ICs, FPGAs and GPUs. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 33–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stroke.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Solar Impulse 2 Prepares For Final Leg Of Its Journey Around The World On Solar Power [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Free Flight Tools Show Promise, but Implementation Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carroll WE. Leadership and emotional intelligence: Ability-based and mixed models of emotional intelligence as predictors of leadership performance across manager levels. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Finally on Big Stage, Predators Stumble in an Uneven Performance. New York Times. 2017;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleStroke
ISSN (print)0039-2499
ISSN (online)1524-4628
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

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