How to format your references using the Stroke citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stroke. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag H. Drug delivery: brain food. Nature. 2014;510:S6-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rockström J, Falkenmark M. Agriculture: increase water harvesting in Africa. Nature. 2015;519:283–285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sasaki T, Matsuki N, Ikegaya Y. Action-potential modulation during axonal conduction. Science. 2011;331:599–601.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vendruscolo M, Paci E, Dobson CM, Karplus M. Three key residues form a critical contact network in a protein folding transition state. Nature. 2001;409:641–645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seyfried TN. Cancer as a Metabolic Disease. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Scheerens J, editor. Informal Learning of Active Citizenship at School: An International Comparative Study in Seven European Countries. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Pohl K-H. “Immanent Transcendence” in the Chinese Tradition: Remarks on a Chinese (and Sinological) Controversy. In: Brown N, Franke W, editors. Transcendence, Immanence, and Intercultural Philosophy. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 103–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stroke.

Blog post
Luntz S. Contraceptive Pill Could Help Recovery From Flu [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Hazardous Weather Detection and Warning Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bathon JM. Examining the characteristics of school leaders and of local schools where Indiana educational leadership preparation programs place their graduates. 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
La Gorce T. Fire Up the Pit: My Brisket Can Burn Yours. New York Times. 2012;NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleStroke
ISSN (print)0039-2499
ISSN (online)1524-4628
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles