How to format your references using the European Journal of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Radick G. HISTORY OF SCIENCE. Beyond the “Mendel-Fisher controversy.” Science 2015;350:159–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Perera RM, Bardeesy N. Cancer: when antioxidants are bad. Nature 2011;475:43–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morris M, Uchida K, Do T. A magnetic torsional wave near the Galactic Centre traced by a “double helix” nebula. Nature 2006;440:308–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Abo-Shaeer JR, Raman C, Vogels JM, Ketterle W. Observation of vortex lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates. Science 2001;292:476–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shafer G, Vovk V. Probability and Finance: It’s Only a Game! Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Calude CS, Dinneen MJ, editors. Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation: 14th International Conference, UCNC 2015, Auckland, New Zealand, August 30 -- September 3, 2015, Proceedings. vol. 9252. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Desivilya Syna H. Social Divisions, Intergroup Conflict and Diversity. Reflections about Social Conflict and Diversity: the Case of Israeli Organizations. In: Müller A, editor. Re-thinking Diversity: Multiple Approaches in Theory, Media, Communities, and Managerial Practice, Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2016, p. 55–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Evans K. Google’s April Fools’ Day Trick Lets You Play “Ms. Pac-Man” In Google Maps. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Surface and Maritime Transportation: Developing Strategies for Enhancing Mobility: A National Challenge. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parisi J. Correlation of Conditional Admittance and Student Achievement in an Undergraduate Higher Education Setting. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mann J. America’s dangerous ‘China fantasy.’ New York Times 2016:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationEur. J. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0953-6205
ScopeInternal Medicine

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