How to format your references using the Strategy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strategy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel JS (2012) Chemistry. Driving the formation of molecular knots. Science 338(6108):752–753.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deschenes LA, Vanden Bout DA (2001) Single-molecule studies of heterogeneous dynamics in polymer melts near the glass transition. Science 292(5515):255–258.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharp DJ, Rogers GC, Scholey JM (2000) Microtubule motors in mitosis. Nature 407(6800):41–47.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Urbakh M, Klafter J, Gourdon D, Israelachvili J (2004) The nonlinear nature of friction. Nature 430(6999):525–528.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Makower T (2014) Touching the City (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK).
An edited book
Schonmann S ed. (2011) Key Concepts in Theatre/Drama Education (SensePublishers, Rotterdam).
A chapter in an edited book
Xavier GR, Correia MEF, de Aquino AM, Zilli JÉ, Rumjanek NG (2010) The Structural and Functional Biodiversity of Soil: An Interdisciplinary Vision for Conservation Agriculture in Brazil. Dion P, ed. Soil Biology and Agriculture in the Tropics. Soil Biology. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg), 65–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strategy Science.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Study Reveals Bite Strength Of Stegosaurus Was Similar To A Cow. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Compensatory Education: Additional Funds Help More Private School Students Receive Chapter 1 Services (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hofmann TB (2008) Adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia: A comparison of quality of life issues for those receiving Botox treatment. Doctoral dissertation. (Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L (2014) A Meeting That Couples Often Find Daunting. New York Times (February 9).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Siegel 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Deschenes and Vanden Bout 2001, Siegel 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deschenes and Vanden Bout 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Urbakh et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleStrategy Science
ISSN (print)2333-2050
ISSN (online)2333-2077

Other styles