How to format your references using the Strategy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strategy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benner SA (2011) Comment on “A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus.” Science 332(6034):1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baker RP, Urban S (2015) Cytosolic extensions directly regulate a rhomboid protease by modulating substrate gating. Nature 523(7558):101–105.
A journal article with 3 authors
Belmonte A, Di Clemente R, Buldyrev SV (2014) The Italian primary school-size distribution and the city-size: a complex nexus. Sci. Rep. 4:5301.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kawahara Y, Zinshteyn B, Sethupathy P, Iizasa H, Hatzigeorgiou AG, Nishikura K (2007) Redirection of silencing targets by adenosine-to-inosine editing of miRNAs. Science 315(5815):1137–1140.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knudsen S (2005) A Biologist’s Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Payan Y ed. (2012) Soft Tissue Biomechanical Modeling for Computer Assisted Surgery (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg).
A chapter in an edited book
Mähne T, Vachoux A (2007) ModelLib: A Web-Based Platform for Collecting Behavioural Models and Supporting the Design of AMS Systems. Huss SA, ed. Advances in Design and Specification Languages for Embedded Systems: Selected Contributions from FDL’06. (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht), 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strategy Science.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) San Andreas Fault Is “Locked, Loaded And Ready To Go,” Says Leading Seismologist. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) [Comments on FAA Employee’s Claim for Real Estate Expenses] (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schaper P (2010) Meaning making: Learning in whistle blowing. Doctoral dissertation. (George Washington University, Washington, DC).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bittman M (2012) Heavenly Earth. New York Times (October 10).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benner 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Baker and Urban 2015, Benner 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baker and Urban 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Kawahara et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleStrategy Science
ISSN (print)2333-2050
ISSN (online)2333-2077

Other styles