How to format your references using the Strategy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strategy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M (2010) Taste: More than meets the mouth. Nature 468(7327):S18-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alley RB, Joughin I (2012) Climate change. Modeling ice-sheet flow. Science 336(6081):551–552.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sekiguchi A, Kinjo R, Ichinohe M (2004) A stable compound containing a silicon-silicon triple bond. Science 305(5691):1755–1757.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Braddock DT, Louis JM, Baber JL, Levens D, Clore GM (2002) Structure and dynamics of KH domains from FBP bound to single-stranded DNA. Nature 415(6875):1051–1056.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bakus GJ (2007) Quantitative Analysis of Marine Biological Communities (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Paterson C, Lee D, Saha A, Zoellner A eds. (2016) Advancing Media Production Research: Shifting Sites, Methods, and Politics (Palgrave Macmillan UK, London).
A chapter in an edited book
Tan J (2006) LIMITED DECENTRALIZATION IN THE SINGAPORE EDUCATION SYSTEM. Bjork C, ed. Educational Decentralization: Asian Experiences and Conceptual Contributions. EDUCATION IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION: ISSUES, CONCERNS AND PROSPECTS. (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht), 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strategy Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Reveal What The Perfect Penis Looks Like. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Export Controls: International Space Station Technology Transfers (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wisdom V (2015) Reverie: A portal to the numinous—an exploration into early childhood psychospiritual awareness. Doctoral dissertation. (Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J (2017) American Eyes on Race in Australia. New York Times (June 30).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Alley and Joughin 2012, Eisenstein 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Alley and Joughin 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Braddock et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleStrategy Science
ISSN (print)2333-2050
ISSN (online)2333-2077

Other styles