How to format your references using the Strategy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strategy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel G (2003) Bush seeks to beef up US nuclear-weapons arsenal. Nature 422(6928):101–102.
A journal article with 2 authors
Irvine RF, Denton RM (2011) Cell biology. Pyro-technic control of metabolism. Science 334(6057):770–771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brosco V, Ying ZJ, Lorenzana J (2013) Exact exchange-correlation potential of an ionic Hubbard model with a free surface. Sci. Rep. 3:2172.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Du L, Ali GS, Simons KA, Hou J, Yang T, Reddy ASN, Poovaiah BW (2009) Ca(2+)/calmodulin regulates salicylic-acid-mediated plant immunity. Nature 457(7233):1154–1158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pratt TH (2010) Electrostatic Ignitions of Fires and Explosions (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Velazquez JLP, Wennberg R eds. (2009) Coordinated Activity in the Brain: Measurements and Relevance to Brain Function and Behavior (Springer, New York, NY).
A chapter in an edited book
Koster A, Koch F, Bazzan ALC (2014) Incentivising Crowdsourced Parking Solutions. Nin J, Villatoro D, eds. Citizen in Sensor Networks: Second International Workshop, CitiSens 2013, Barcelona, Spain, September 19, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (Springer International Publishing, Cham), 36–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strategy Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Global Population Predicted To Reach 11 Billion By 2100. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) FCC: Rules and Policies for Local Multipoint Distribution Service and for Fixed Satellite Services (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seitz AE (2015) Epidemiology, Spatial Distribution, and Treatment Patterns of Blastomycosis in the United States. Doctoral dissertation. (George Washington University, Washington, DC).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S, Abrams R, Rogers K (2017) A Strike by Women, but Turnout Is Modest. New York Times (March 8).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel 2003, Irvine and Denton 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Irvine and Denton 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Du et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleStrategy Science
ISSN (print)2333-2050
ISSN (online)2333-2077

Other styles