How to format your references using the Strategy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strategy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Swanson RM (2009) Applied physics. Photovoltaics power up. Science 324(5929):891–892.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Ginneken VJ, van den Thillart GE (2000) Eel fat stores are enough to reach the Sargasso. Nature 403(6766):156–157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Regenauer-Lieb K, Weinberg RF, Rosenbaum G (2006) The effect of energy feedbacks on continental strength. Nature 442(7098):67–70.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jirawatnotai S, Hu Y, Michowski W, Elias JE, Becks L, Bienvenu F, Zagozdzon A, et al. (2011) A function for cyclin D1 in DNA repair uncovered by protein interactome analyses in human cancers. Nature 474(7350):230–234.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martin-Flatin JP (2002) Web-Based Management of IP Networks and Systems (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK).
An edited book
van Veldhoven RHM (2011) Robust Sigma Delta Converters: And Their Application in Low-Power Highly-Digitized Flexible Receivers van Roermund AHM, ed. (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht).
A chapter in an edited book
Turnbull J, McCune J (2011) Externalizing Puppet Configuration. McCune J, ed. Pro Puppet. (Apress, Berkeley, CA), 119–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strategy Science.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Neurotransmitter Boost Has Fast-Acting Antidepressant Effects In Mice. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Pipeline Safety: Better Data and Guidance Could Improve Operators’ Responses to Incidents (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whited JE (2015) An Investigation of Struggling Learners’ Motivation to Read. Doctoral dissertation. (University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2010) A.I.G. and U.S. Agree on Exit Plan, but Numbers Are Uncertain. New York Times (October 1).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Swanson 2009).
This sentence cites two references (van Ginneken and van den Thillart 2000, Swanson 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Ginneken and van den Thillart 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Jirawatnotai et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleStrategy Science
ISSN (print)2333-2050
ISSN (online)2333-2077

Other styles