How to format your references using the Strategy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strategy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fratzl P (2014) Applied physics: The virtues of tiling. Nature 516(7530):178–179.
A journal article with 2 authors
McGraw JB, Furedi MA (2005) Deer browsing and population viability of a forest understory plant. Science 307(5711):920–922.
A journal article with 3 authors
McDougall I, Brown FH, Fleagle JG (2005) Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia. Nature 433(7027):733–736.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Qi H, Egen JG, Huang AYC, Germain RN (2006) Extrafollicular activation of lymph node B cells by antigen-bearing dendritic cells. Science 312(5780):1672–1676.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Teodorescu PP, Kecs WW, Toma A (2013) Distribution Theory (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany).
An edited book
Cherubini U, Durante F, Mulinacci S eds. (2015) Marshall ̶ Olkin Distributions - Advances in Theory and Applications: Bologna, Italy, October 2013 (Springer International Publishing, Cham).
A chapter in an edited book
Braun T, Gotzhein R, Wiebel M (2011) Integration of FlexRay into the SDL-Model-Driven Development Approach. Kraemer FA, Herrmann P, eds. System Analysis and Modeling: About Models: 6th International Workshop, SAM 2010, Oslo, Norway, October 4-5, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg), 56–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strategy Science.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) US Nuclear Weapons Computers Still Use Floppy Disks. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Consistent Criteria Are Needed To Assess Small-Business Innovation Initiatives (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ho CW (2012) Music genre on the move: Discourse and the cultural production of Japanese visual rock in Hong Kong. Doctoral dissertation. (Indiana University, Bloomington, IN).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J (2017) Sorting a Comic’s Library of Laughs (and Letters and Bills and …). New York Times (October 22).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fratzl 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Fratzl 2014, McGraw and Furedi 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McGraw and Furedi 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Qi et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleStrategy Science
ISSN (print)2333-2050
ISSN (online)2333-2077

Other styles