How to format your references using the Journal of Wildlife Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Wildlife Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pratt ST. 2014. Ultrafast dynamics. Charge transfer goes the distance. Science 345:267–268.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fries M, Steele A. 2008. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites. Science 320:91–93.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailis R, Ezzati M, Kammen DM. 2005. Mortality and greenhouse gas impacts of biomass and petroleum energy futures in Africa. Science 308:98–103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang L, He D, Feng S, Yu C, Hu L, Qiu J, Chen D. 2014. Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber. Sci Rep 4:6139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rainey LD. 2010. Confucius & Confucianism. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Mukhopadhyay C, Akhilesh KB, Srinivasan R, Gurtoo A, Ramachandran P, Iyer PP, Mathirajan M, Bala Subrahmanya MH (Eds). 2013. Driving the Economy through Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Emerging Agenda for Technology Management. Springer India, New Delhi, XVII, 890 p. 155 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Federmann C. 2012. A Machine-Learning Framework for Hybrid Machine Translation. In: KI 2012: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 35th Annual German Conference on AI, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 24-27, 2012. Proceedings, B. Glimm and A. Krüger, editors. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Wildlife Diseases.

Blog post
Taub B. 2016. New Research Reveals How Cocaine Affects Your DNA. IFLScience. Accessed October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Information Technology: Additional Executive Review Sessions Needed to Address Troubled Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estep KL. 2010. Outreach Communication by Grassroots Environmental Organizations: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. 2017. That Close-Up, in Fine Focus. New York Times:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pratt 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Fries and Steele 2008; Pratt 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fries and Steele 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Wildlife Diseases
AbbreviationJ. Wildl. Dis.
ISSN (print)0090-3558
ISSN (online)1943-3700
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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