How to format your references using the Journal of Wildlife Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Wildlife Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roenneberg T. 2013. Chronobiology: the human sleep project. Nature 498:427–428.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schreiber H, Rowley DA. 2010. Cancer. Awakening immunity. Science 330:761–762.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holmes EA, Craske MG, Graybiel AM. 2014. Psychological treatments: A call for mental-health science. Nature 511:287–289.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
You C, Ji D, Dai X, Wang Y. 2014. Effects of Tet-mediated oxidation products of 5-methylcytosine on DNA transcription in vitro and in mammalian cells. Sci Rep 4:7052.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horváth T. 2006. Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, England.
An edited book
Pires JN. 2006. Welding Robots: Technology, System Issues and Applications. Springer, London, XVIII, 180 p. 88 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Buscarini E, Manfredi G. 2012. Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Interventional Procedures in Pancreatic Diseases. In: Ultrasonography of the Pancreas: Imaging and Pathologic Correlations, M. D’Onofrio, editor. Springer, Milano. pp. 47–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Wildlife Diseases.

Blog post
Hale T. 2017. Doctors Find 150 Worms Living Inside A Woman’s Stomach. IFLScience. Accessed October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. DOD’s High-Risk Areas: Challenges Remain to Achieving and Demonstrating Progress in Supply Chain Management. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jorge MH. 2004. Relationships Among Poverty, Financial Services, Human Capital, Risk Coping, and Natural Resources: Evidence from El Salvador and Bolivia. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. 2016. A Lesson on Slavery With Bite and No Mercy. New York Times:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roenneberg 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Schreiber and Rowley 2010; Roenneberg 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schreiber and Rowley 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (You et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Wildlife Diseases
AbbreviationJ. Wildl. Dis.
ISSN (print)0090-3558
ISSN (online)1943-3700
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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