How to format your references using the Journal of Wildlife Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Wildlife Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sylvestre D. 2011. Perspective: recognizing resistance. Nature 474:S11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marraffini LA, Sontheimer EJ. 2010. Self versus non-self discrimination during CRISPR RNA-directed immunity. Nature 463:568–571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pornillos O, Ganser-Pornillos BK, Yeager M. 2011. Atomic-level modelling of the HIV capsid. Nature 469:424–427.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen Q, Zhang C, Xue F, Zhou Y, Li W, Wang Y, Tu W, Zou Z, Wang X, Xiao M. 2013. Enhanced hot-carrier luminescence in multilayer reduced graphene oxide nanospheres. Sci Rep 3:2315.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacGowan C. 2011. The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Shaari KZK, Awang M (Eds). 2015. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, VIII, 167 p. 108 illus., 66 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Krylov A, Nasonov A. 2011. Edge-Directed Image Interpolation Using Color Gradient Information. In: Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2011: 16th International Conference, Ravenna, Italy, September 14-16, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, G. Maino and G. L. Foresti, editors. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 40–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Wildlife Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Are Some Species Just Too Wild For A Happy Life In Captivity? IFLScience. Accessed October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Government in Early Stages of Transition and Key Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford BA. 2017. Beneficial Tensile Mean Strain Effects on the Fatigue Behavior of Superelastic NiTi. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. 2009. Sorting Out Their Goals, and Options. New York Times:WE6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sylvestre 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Marraffini and Sontheimer 2010; Sylvestre 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marraffini and Sontheimer 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Wildlife Diseases
AbbreviationJ. Wildl. Dis.
ISSN (print)0090-3558
ISSN (online)1943-3700
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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