How to format your references using the Journal of Wildlife Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Wildlife Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prusiner SB. 2002. Historical essay. Discovering the cause of AIDS. Science 298:1726.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tucker TJ, Makgoba MW. 2008. Public health. Public-private partnerships and scientific imperialism. Science 320:1016–1017.
A journal article with 3 authors
Durniak KJ, Bailey S, Steitz TA. 2008. The structure of a transcribing T7 RNA polymerase in transition from initiation to elongation. Science 322:553–557.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eder FR, Kotakoski J, Kaiser U, Meyer JC. 2014. A journey from order to disorder - atom by atom transformation from graphene to a 2D carbon glass. Sci Rep 4:4060.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riehle F. 2003. Frequency Standards. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Nguyen NT, Katarzyniak RP, Janiak A (Eds). 2009. New Challenges in Computational Collective Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, IX, 349 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Diong ML, Bas P, Pelle C, Sawaya W. 2012. Document Authentication Using 2D Codes: Maximizing the Decoding Performance Using Statistical Inference. In: Communications and Multimedia Security: 13th IFIP TC 6/TC 11 International Conference, CMS 2012, Canterbury, UK, September 3-5, 2012. Proceedings, B. D. Decker and D. W. Chadwick, editors. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 39–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Wildlife Diseases.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. You’re Doing Traffic Wrong – But Here’s How Driverless Cars Could Help. IFLScience. Accessed October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Proposed Revision to Armed Services Procurement Regulation for Cost Principles on Independent Research and Development Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright NC. 2010. The association between rheumatoid arthritis, bone strength, and body composition within the women’s health initiative. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. 2014. Debutantes in Laredo, Surprisingly Colonial. New York Times:A27B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Prusiner 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Prusiner 2002; Tucker and Makgoba 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tucker and Makgoba 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Eder et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Wildlife Diseases
AbbreviationJ. Wildl. Dis.
ISSN (print)0090-3558
ISSN (online)1943-3700
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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