How to format your references using the Journal of Wildlife Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Wildlife Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schübeler D. 2012. Molecular biology. Epigenetic islands in a genetic ocean. Science 338:756–757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poulsen M, Boomsma JJ. 2005. Mutualistic fungi control crop diversity in fungus-growing ants. Science 307:741–744.
A journal article with 3 authors
del Campo A, Boshier MG, Saxena A. 2014. Bent waveguides for matter-waves: supersymmetric potentials and reflectionless geometries. Sci Rep 4:5274.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pham KN, Puertas AM, Bergenholtz J, Egelhaaf SU, Moussaïd A, Pusey PN, Schofield AB, Cates ME, Fuchs M, Poon WCK. 2002. Multiple glassy states in a simple model system. Science 296:104–106.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper N, Forrest K, Cramp P. 2008. Essential Guide to Generic Skills. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Jacobson MJ. 2009. Solving the Pell Equation. Springer, New York, NY, XX, 495 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Meslé F, Vallin J, Shkolnikov V. 2012. Is Mortality Under-Estimated? In: Mortality and Causes of Death in 20th-Century Ukraine, J. Vallin, editor. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. pp. 77–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Wildlife Diseases.

Blog post
Davis J. 2016. Fossils From Some Of The Earliest Four-Legged Animals Found In Scotland. IFLScience. Accessed October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Freight Railroads: Industry Health Has Improved, but Concerns about Competition and Capacity Should Be Addressed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang X. 2012. Electroweak interactions and the delta resonance in a chiral effective field theory for nuclei. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M. 2017. Asked for Data on Voters, States Give Trump Panel a Bipartisan ‘No.’ New York Times:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schübeler 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Poulsen and Boomsma 2005; Schübeler 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Poulsen and Boomsma 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Pham et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Wildlife Diseases
AbbreviationJ. Wildl. Dis.
ISSN (print)0090-3558
ISSN (online)1943-3700
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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