How to format your references using the Cryogenics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cryogenics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmelcher P. Chemistry. Molecule formation in ultrahigh magnetic fields. Science 2012;337:302–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chirik PJ, Wieghardt K. Chemistry. Radical ligands confer nobility on base-metal catalysts. Science 2010;327:794–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ostojic S, Somfai E, Nienhuis B. Scale invariance and universality of force networks in static granular matter. Nature 2006;439:828–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim MC, Panstruga R, Elliott C, Müller J, Devoto A, Yoon HW, et al. Calmodulin interacts with MLO protein to regulate defence against mildew in barley. Nature 2002;416:447–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lado EP. The Common Fisheries Policy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
van den Dool L. The Quest for Good Urban Governance: Theoretical Reflections and International Practices. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Morris LF, Yeh MW. Parathyroidectomy. In: Chen H, editor. Illustrative Handbook of General Surgery, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cryogenics.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Samples From Apollo 14 Suggest The Moon Is Almost As Old As The Solar System. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. TSA Explosives Detection Canine Program: Actions Needed to Analyze Data and Ensure Canine Teams Are Effectively Utilized. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens T. The evolution of transformative communication patterns in 1-to-1 computing classrooms. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Savoring The Live Action. New York Times 2010:ST9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCryogenics
AbbreviationCryogenics (Guildf.)
ISSN (print)0011-2275
ScopeGeneral Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

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